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revision 5951 by molinaro, Sat May 8 09:34:35 2021 UTC revision 5952 by msdemlei, Tue May 11 12:26:25 2021 UTC
# Line 54  Line 54 
54  consensus vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory, that is the creation,  consensus vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory, that is the creation,
55  publication, maintenance, and consumption of  publication, maintenance, and consumption of
56  hierarchical word lists agreed upon within the IVOA.  hierarchical word lists agreed upon within the IVOA.
57  To cover the wide range of use cases envisoned, we define three flavours  To cover the wide range of use cases envisoned, we define different
58  of such vocabularies: SKOS for informal knowledge organisation on the  vocabulary types for informal knowledge organisation on the
59  one hand, and strict hierarchies of classes and properties on the other.  one hand, and strict hierarchies of classes and properties on the other.
60  While the framework rests on the solid foundations of W3C RDF,  While the framework rests on the solid foundations of W3C RDF,
61  provisions are made to facilitate using IVOA vocabularies without  provisions are made to facilitate using IVOA vocabularies without
# Line 108  Line 108 
108    
109  Based on requirements derived from these use cases  Based on requirements derived from these use cases
110  (sect.~\ref{sect:requirements}), this standard will therefore define  (sect.~\ref{sect:requirements}), this standard will therefore define
111  conventions for  conventions for vocabularies based on either SKOS \citep{std:skos} or
112  vocabularies based on either SKOS or RDFS in  RDFS \citep{std:rdfs} in
113  sect.~\ref{sect:voccontent}.  Where these vocabularies -- and hence, in  sect.~\ref{sect:voccontent}.  Where these vocabularies -- and hence, in
114  particular, the permanent URIs of their RDF resources (``terms'')  particular, the permanent URIs of their RDF resources (``terms'')
115  -- are managed by the  -- are managed by the
# Line 179  Line 179 
179  definition effort, or where perhaps more complex structures (e.g., full  definition effort, or where perhaps more complex structures (e.g., full
180  ontologies) must be employed.  An example for a direct use of SKOS  ontologies) must be employed.  An example for a direct use of SKOS
181  without adoption of the present document is the Simulation Data Model  without adoption of the present document is the Simulation Data Model
182  SimDM \citep{2012ivoa.spec.0503L}, where several fields the values of  SimDM \citep{2012ivoa.spec.0503L}, where several fields constrain their
183  which are required to be \vocterm{skos:narrower} than certain top-level  values to be \vocterm{skos:narrower} than certain top-level concepts.
 concepts but no further restrictions on the vocabularies need to be  
 imposed.  
184    
185  \subsection{Relationship to Vocabularies in the VO Version 1}  \subsection{Relationship to Vocabularies in the VO Version 1}
186    \label{sect:version1rel}
187    
188  Published in 2009, version 1.19 of the IVOA Recommendation on  Published in 2009, version 1.19 of the IVOA Recommendation on
189  Vocabularies in the VO had an outlook fairly different from the present  Vocabularies in the VO had an outlook fairly different from the present
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258  in annotation.  It is rarely necessary to distinguish between the two  in annotation.  It is rarely necessary to distinguish between the two
259  meanings.  meanings.
260    
261  We refer to classes and properties by CURIEs \citep{std:curie}.    We refer to classes and properties by CURIEs \citep{std:curie}, i.e.,
262  The prefixes in this  URIs shortened by replacing long strings with compact prefixes and a
263  document correspond to the following URIs:  colon.  The prefixes in this
264    document correspond to the following base URIs:
265    
266  \begin{compactitem}  \begin{compactitem}
267  \item dc -- \url{http://purl.org/dc/terms/}  \item dc -- \url{http://purl.org/dc/terms/}
# Line 327  Line 327 
327  in that the latter is property-like, as  in that the latter is property-like, as
328  in ``Resource-1 \vocterm{isServedBy} Resource-2\/''.  In contrast with  in ``Resource-1 \vocterm{isServedBy} Resource-2\/''.  In contrast with
329  this, a time scale would be used like ``Time-coordinate  this, a time scale would be used like ``Time-coordinate
330  \vocterm{is-given-in}  \vocterm{is-given-in} \vocterm{TT\/}''.  In RDFS terminology, time scales
331  \vocterm{TT\/}''.  In RDFS terminology, they are therefore better modelled  are therefore better modelled as classes rather than properties.
 as classes rather than properties.  
332    
333  \subsubsection{Datalink Link Selection}  \subsubsection{Datalink Link Selection}
334  \label{uc:links}  \label{uc:links}
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373  \subsubsection{Vocabulary Updates in VOResource}  \subsubsection{Vocabulary Updates in VOResource}
374  \label{uc:deprecation}  \label{uc:deprecation}
375    
376  In VOResource 1.0, relationship types like \vocterm{served-by} or  In VOResource 1.0 \citep{2008ivoa.spec.0222P}, relationship types
377    like \vocterm{served-by} or
378  \vocterm{service-for} were defined.  Later, DataCite defined equivalent  \vocterm{service-for} were defined.  Later, DataCite defined equivalent
379  terms \vocterm{IsServedBy} and \vocterm{IsServiceFor}.  Arguably, the VO should,  terms \vocterm{IsServedBy} and \vocterm{IsServiceFor}.  Arguably, the VO should,
380  as far as sensible, take up standards in the wider data management  as far as sensible, take up standards in the wider data management
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665  two formats usable without RDF tooling or, indeed, deeper knowledge of  two formats usable without RDF tooling or, indeed, deeper knowledge of
666  RDF.  This section discusses these.  RDF.  This section discusses these.
667    
668  \subsection{Choosing Terms From IVOA Vocabularies}  \subsection{Choosing Terms From IVOA Vocabularies (non-normative)}
669    
670  Resource annotators can usually treat IVOA Vocabularies as simple lists  Resource annotators can usually treat IVOA Vocabularies as simple lists
671  of (case-sensitive) strings with human-readable labels and definitions.    of (case-sensitive) strings with human-readable labels and definitions.  
# Line 733  Line 733 
733  terms.  terms.
734  \end{compactitem}  \end{compactitem}
735    
736    \subsubsection{Vocabularies in desise}
737    
738  To let VO programs perform such tasks with minimal technical overhead,  To let VO programs perform such tasks with minimal technical overhead,
739  in addition to the RDF artefacts described in  in addition to the RDF artefacts described in
740  sect.~\ref{sect:deployment}, IVOA vocabularies are also available in an  sect.~\ref{sect:deployment}, IVOA vocabularies are also available in an
741  ad-hoc format called desise (``dead simple semantics'').  Clients can  ad-hoc format defined here for VO-internal use, nicknamed ``desise''
742  obtain vocabularies in desise by retrieving the vocabulary URI with the  (``dead simple semantics'').  Clients can retrieve vocabularies in
743  HTTP accept header set to \texttt{application/x-desise+json}.  desise by requesting the vocabulary URI with the HTTP accept header set
744    to \texttt{application/x-desise+json}.
745    
746  What is returned is a JSON-encoded \citep{std:JSON} mapping (``object''  What is returned is a JSON-encoded \citep{std:JSON} mapping (``object''
747  in JSON terms)  in JSON terms)
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804  See appendix~\ref{app:desiseexample} for a example of a vocabulary  See appendix~\ref{app:desiseexample} for a example of a vocabulary
805  represented in desise.  represented in desise.
806    
807  For illustration, here are recipes to solve the various use cases in  \subsubsection{Working with desise (non-normative)}
808  Python:  
809    For illustration, here are recipes showing how to address
810    the various use cases in Python:
811    
812  \paragraph{Load a vocabulary} Using the popular requests module:\\  \paragraph{Load a vocabulary} Using the popular requests module:\\
813  \begin{lstlisting}  \begin{lstlisting}
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957  \item \vocterm{skos:exactMatch} -- for externally managed vocabularies  \item \vocterm{skos:exactMatch} -- for externally managed vocabularies
958  the IVOA has endorsed (see sect.~\ref{sect:externally-managed}), this  the IVOA has endorsed (see sect.~\ref{sect:externally-managed}), this
959  property links the IVOA term (subject) to the external RDF resource  property links the IVOA term (subject) to the external RDF resource
960  (object).  (object) [mostly for requirement~\ref{req:external}].
961    
962  \item General properties discussed in \ref{sect:genprop} [this is  \item General properties discussed in \ref{sect:genprop} [this is
963  for requirements~\ref{req:deprecating} and  for requirements~\ref{req:deprecating} and
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1162  \item \vocterm{ivoasem:useInstead} -- for a deprecated term, the  \item \vocterm{ivoasem:useInstead} -- for a deprecated term, the
1163  objects of RDF triples using this property indicate  objects of RDF triples using this property indicate
1164  which terms should be  which terms should be
1165  used instead of the deprecated one.  used instead of the deprecated one.  This property MUST NOT be used with
1166    non-deprecated subjects.
1167    
1168  \end{itemize}  \end{itemize}
1169    
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1235  order to satisfy requirement~\ref{req:preliminary}.  order to satisfy requirement~\ref{req:preliminary}.
1236    
1237  The entire new vocabulary gets approved as the document introducing it  The entire new vocabulary gets approved as the document introducing it
1238  reaches the status of Recommendation or Endorsed Note.  From then  reaches the status of Recommendation or Endorsed Note.  At that point,
1239    all its terms become un-deprecated.  From then
1240  on, it is managed by the Semantics WG using the process defined in  on, it is managed by the Semantics WG using the process defined in
1241  the next section.  the next section.
1242    
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1800        "description": "As defined by 1998AJ....116..516M.",        "description": "As defined by 1998AJ....116..516M.",
1801        "wider": ["EQUATORIAL"], "narrower": []        "wider": ["EQUATORIAL"], "narrower": []
1802      },      },
1803      "B1875.0": {      "B1875": {
1804        "label": "Bonner Durchmusterung System",        "label": "Bonner Durchmusterung System",
1805        "description": "Deprecated term for the reference system implied by BD/CD",        "description": "Deprecated term for the reference system implied by BD/CD",
1806        "deprecated": "",        "deprecated": "",
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1880  new terms and introducing a naive semantics model.  new terms and introducing a naive semantics model.
1881  \end{itemize}  \end{itemize}
1882    
1883    \subsection{Changes from REC-1.19}
1884    
1885    The present document is a full re-write of Version 1 of Vocabularies in
1886    the VO.  See sect.~\ref{sect:version1rel} for details.
1887    
1888  \bibliography{local.bib,ivoatex/ivoabib,ivoatex/docrepo}  \bibliography{local.bib,ivoatex/ivoabib,ivoatex/docrepo}
1889    
1890    

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