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42 <p style='position: absolute; left: 15pt; top: 50pt;'><span style='font-weight: bold;'>O</span> bservatory</p>
43 <p style='position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 75pt;'><span style='font-weight: bold;'>A</span> lliance</p>
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46 <h1>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory<br/>
47 Version <span class="docversion">0.1</span></h1>
48 <h2 class="subtitle">Filled in automatically</h2>
49 <dl>
50 <dt>Working Group</dt>
51 <dd><a href="http://wiki.ivoa.net/twiki/bin/view/IVOA/WebHome">Edu IG</a></dd>
52 <dt><b>This version:</b></dt>
53 <dd><a href="" class="currentlink">filled in automatically</a></dd>
54 <dt><b>Latest version:</b></dt>
55 <dd> not issued outside
56 EDU-IG</dd>
57 <dt><b>Previous version(s):</b></dt>
58 <dd> None</dd>
59 <dt><b>Author(s):</b></dt>
60 <dd>Marco Molinaro<br/>
61 Markus Demleitner<br/>
62 Massimo Ramella</dd>
63 </dl>
65 <h2>Abstract</h2>
66 <p>
67 The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain the needs
68 rising from first attempts in deploying astrophysical resources
69 dedicated to educational purposes inside standard VO resources.
70 Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
71 possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
72 standards.
73 </p>
74 <p>
75 In detail, here is discussed: the curation of educational resources
76 inside or along with standard registration; the reasons for documents,
77 tutorials and similar to be registered and searched through registries
78 alongside with the means of reaching this goal; an idea for resource
79 language internationalization.
80 </p>
81 <p>
82 VO resources as useful material for astronomy and astrophysics
83 education and dissemination has been proved by various international
84 projects and direct request for educational data publishing has arised
85 from networks of educational telescopes.
86 </p>
88 <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
89 <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>
90 <p>This is an IVOA Note generated by discussion between Education IG and Registry WG members mainly.</p>
91 <p> <em>A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/"><i>current
92 IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em > can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>
93 <h2 class="prologue-heading-western">Acknowledgements</h2>
94 <p>blah</p>
95 </div>
96 <h2>Contents</h2>
97 <div>
98 <?toc ?>
99 </div>
101 <div class="body">
103 <div class="section">
104 <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>
105 <p>
106 Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
107 opportunities for teachers to bring observational astronomy into their
108 classrooms. In fact, there is a growing availability of remotely controlled
109 telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
110 Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
111 to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
112 (http://www.ncra.tifr.res.in/rpl). In some cases, educational telescopes are
113 linked into a network with the aim of guaranteeing the best observing conditions,
114 including deep sky observations during regular daytime school hours, and
115 the best instrument for the particular program of interest. Examples
116 of these networks are iTelescope.net (http://www.itelescope.net) and EuHOU-MW
117 (http://euhou.obspm.fr/public).
118 </p>
119 <p>
120 As telescopes enter classrooms more frequently, interest is growing for a
121 public archive of observations and hence for publishing and curation tools,
122 together with the basic applications needed to retrieve, display
123 and analyze data. The VO already includes most of the technology needed
124 to satisfy the requests of educational observatories. In fact, since several
125 years, VO, and in particular the European project EuroVO, is devoting part
126 of its resources to education (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5). It is
127 therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
128 educational data in VO archives.
129 </p>
130 <p>
131 Alongside with these data collections and service based resources an important
132 role is played also by tutorials and use cases adopted in astrophysics dissemination.
133 Documented step-by-step tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical
134 research performed using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats
135 and have been translated in different lancguages. Providing a way to preserve them
136 and make them easily searchable will be an added value to teachers and researchers
137 involved in education and dissemination, both for astrophysics and the VO.
138 </p>
139 <p>
140 Resource registration for both data services and documents gives a nice answer to
141 the scenario here above described (while efforts for data archiving will rely upon
142 interested data centers), but, while technically this seems not a great problem,
143 from the point of view of keeping clean the resources devoted to education will
144 require some more effort.
145 </p>
146 <p>
147 Next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
148 <a href="#regext">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
149 registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
150 internationalization of resources will be discussed.
151 </p>
152 </div> <!-- section Introduction -->
154 <div class="section">
155 <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
156 <p>
157 From a technical point of view there is no need to add new elements or extensions
158 to the existing standard for VO Resources (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>) and extensions
159 to let astrophysical resources devoted to educational, outreach or amateur targets.
160 The only real need for investigating changes in what already exists is due to a
161 use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
162 versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
163 </p>
164 <p>
165 For the sake of simplicity here we will distinguish these two groups of resources as
166 <i>educational</i> and <i>professional</i> but without any intent of putting them
167 on different levels of importance.
168 </p>
169 <div class="section">
170 <h3><a id="eduvspro">Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></h3>
171 <p>
172 On one side, teachers and educators may find it difficult to filter out
173 from all VO resources the ones that are suitable for their tutorials and
174 examples. On the other side, researchers may find annoying having,
175 possibly non-trusted, resources in the output of their search. Again,
176 we stress it is not a matter of the quality of the data deployed, but
177 only a distinction made upon the resources' scope. Moreover, the same
178 resource may be useful for both the goals, but this leads to the same
179 point of discussion: how to properly tag resources?
180 </p>
181 <p>
182 In the next subsection a possible tagging solution, based upon the existing
183 <i>ContentLevel</i> element of VOResource, but requiring a small change
184 to, it is presented. The subsequent subsection describes the idea of a
185 curated registry for educational resources and the reasons for it to exist.
186 </p>
187 </div> <!-- subsection eduvspro -->
189 <div class="section">
190 <h3><a id="contentlvl">ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
191 <p>
192 In <cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite> already exists the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
193 allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
194 suitable for one or more of the following audiences:
195 <ul>
196 <li>General</li>
197 <li>Elementary Education</li>
198 <li>Middle School Education</li>
199 <li>Secondary Education</li>
200 <li>Community College</li>
201 <li>University</li>
202 <li>Research</li>
203 <li>Amateur</li>
204 <li>Informal Education</li>
205 </ul>
206 This element turns out to be misused by resource publisher probably because
207 it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
208 possibilities are. Probably, simplifying the view on this element, e.g.
209 restricting to only three:
210 <ul>
211 <li>General</li>
212 <li>Research</li>
213 <li>Amateur</li>
214 </ul>
215 possible values may lead to both a better description of their resources
216 by data providers and a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
217 differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to
218 add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even
219 substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.
220 </p>
221 <p>
222 This change in the already existing standard will require only
223 a small effort to update already registered resources because nearly 97% of
224 them currently have ContentLevel set to <i>research</i>, about 2% of them have
225 no ContentLevel defined at all and only the remaining (about 1%) have a different value
226 (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these
227 figures).
228 </p>
229 </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
231 <div class="section">
232 <h3><a id="edureg">Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
233 <p>
234 Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
235 a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
236 educators to easily access the wanted data and services. A good example
237 for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas, that has a
238 built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level
239 tutorials.
240 </p>
241 <p>
242 Curation will require some effort in managing and keeping up to date
243 such a registry but, most important, has some restrictions coming from
244 the IVOA resource registry architecture.
245 </p>
246 <p>
247 If such a registry were a standard local registry (<cite>std:RI1</cite>)
248 its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
249 that any educational dedicated resource will go into the full VO
250 set of resources, which is what we don't want to happen to keep the
251 <i>professional</i> side robust.
252 </p>
253 <p>
254 If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
255 resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
256 scope the registry has to be preservde for.
257 </p>
258 <p>
259 What is needed is a resource (the curated registry) capable of :
260 <ul>
261 <li><i>manually</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
262 (e.g. from a full registry);</li>
263 <li>register its own educational resources without being directly
264 harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
265 sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
266 resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li>
267 </ul>
268 </p>
269 <p>
270 The drawing in Fig. 1 exemplifies the above descripted
271 scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
272 while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
273 be curated.
274 <img src="curation.png"></img>
275 </p>
276 </div> <!-- subsection edureg -->
278 </div> <!-- section curreg -->
280 <div class="section">
281 <h2><a id="regext">Registering Texts</a></h2>
282 <p>Educational material is not only about services -- text-like material
283 like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
284 least as important. Within the VO community, there is a large body of
285 such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
286 researchers (TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO works).</p>
288 <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
289 projects on plain web pages. It was, in consequence, hard to find it.
290 Also, locating editable forms of such texts -- which has been found to
291 be necessary fairly regularly -- has been at least difficult; while
292 representing source-product relationships is in principle in the domain
293 of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry, in the case of
294 texts the relation is so simple and its representation so useful that we
295 propose to include it in a simple registry extension covering text-like
296 material, dubbed DocRegExt in the following.</p>
298 <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
299 course are also text-like (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>). This extension,
300 however, focuses on metadata important for standards -- e.g.,
301 vocabularies and status -- that is not pertinent for educational
302 material. Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
303 can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
304 the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
305 important.</p>
307 <div class="section">
308 <h3><a id="regext-usecases">Use Cases</a></h3>
310 <p>The design of DocRegExt has been guided by the desire to fulfill the
311 following use cases:</p>
313 <ul>
314 <li>Is there a tutorial covering discovering intermediate mass black
315 holes? (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
316 <li>Is there a tutorial covering working with X-Ray data? (Standard
317 VOResource is sufficient)</li>
318 <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use?
319 (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
320 <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use in
321 Italian? (That requires the declaration of the document language)</li>
322 <li>What are the subjects of maintained (in the sense of: probably
323 working in the VO as found by the students) tutorials?
324 (The active flag of standard VOResource is
325 unsuitable here since even outdated resources will still be accessible;
326 therefore, we introduce the maintained flag)</li>
327 <li>Are there tutorials using redshifts? (This is solved by allowing
328 table metadata in DocRegExt)</li>
329 <li>Where can I find an editable version of tutorial ivo://auth/tut1?
330 (This is solved by allowing multiple access URLs with different content
331 types, which should be sufficient to allow answering the question)</li>
332 <li>Are there translations of tutorial ivo://auth/tut2? (This is covered
333 by the recommendations on declaring relationships between text-like
334 resources)</li>
335 <li>Is there material using service ivo://auth/svc1? (Again, declaring
336 relationships covers this use case)</li>
337 <li>Is there material about something visible tonight? (In principle,
338 allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow
339 answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
340 information in useable form)</li>
341 <li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror"). Is it
342 the latest version? If not, where can I find an update?</li>
343 </ul>
344 </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
346 </div> <!-- section regext -->
348 <div class="section">
349 <h2><a id="lang">Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
350 <p>
351 The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
352 in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
353 educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
354 audience not skilled enough with the english language. It would be an added
355 value in this case to be able to register an educational or
356 documental resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
357 standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
358 </p>
359 <p>
360 Here what it would be nice to discuss is whether this means:
361 <ul>
362 <li>changing VOResource to allow different languages in resource
363 descriptions;</li>
364 <li>enable internazionalization in VO resources within existing
365 resources: one resource described in multiple languages</li>
366 <li>other...</li>
367 </ul>
368 </p>
369 </div> <!-- section lang -->
371 </div> <!-- body -->
373 <div class="appendices">
374 <div class="section">
375 <h2><a id="clcurrval">ContentLevel values summary</a></h2>
376 <p>
377 This appendix reports some statistics on the usage of the ContentLevel
378 element in <cite>std:VOR</cite> as of 2014-01-30, taken from the
379 GAVO RegTAP endpoint http://dc.g-vo.org/tap .
380 There are 14392 useful resources (excluding authorities, standards and
381 similar) that expose 26 different values as their ContentLevel.
382 In the following table these values are reported in order of count.
383 </p>
384 <p>
385 <table class="plain">
386 <thead>
387 <tr>
388 <th>count</th> <th>content_level string</th>
389 </tr>
390 </thead>
391 <tbody>
392 <tr>
393 <td>13937</td> <td>research</td>
394 </tr>
395 <tr>
396 <td>290</td> <td>&nbsp;</td>
397 </tr>
398 <tr>
399 <td>41</td> <td>university#research</td>
400 </tr>
401 <tr>
402 <td>40</td> <td>general#university#research#amateur</td>
403 </tr>
404 <tr>
405 <td>24</td> <td>university</td>
406 </tr>
407 <tr>
408 <td>14</td> <td>university#research#amateur</td>
409 </tr>
410 <tr>
411 <td>7</td> <td>general</td>
412 </tr>
413 <tr>
414 <td>5</td> <td>research#general</td>
415 </tr>
416 <tr>
417 <td>4</td> <td>general#research</td>
418 </tr>
419 <tr>
420 <td>3</td> <td>secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td>
421 </tr>
422 <tr>
423 <td>3</td> <td>research#university#community college</td>
424 </tr>
425 <tr>
426 <td>3</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education</td>
427 </tr>
428 <tr>
429 <td>3</td> <td>general#university#research</td>
430 </tr>
431 <tr>
432 <td>2</td> <td>research#university</td>
433 </tr>
434 <tr>
435 <td>2</td> <td>research#amateur#university#community college</td>
436 </tr>
437 <tr>
438 <td>2</td> <td>general#informal education</td>
439 </tr>
440 <tr>
441 <td>2</td> <td>general#elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
442 </tr>
443 <tr>
444 <td>1</td> <td>university#community college#research</td>
445 </tr>
446 <tr>
447 <td>1</td> <td>general#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
448 </tr>
449 <tr>
450 <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research</td>
451 </tr>
452 <tr>
453 <td>1</td> <td>general#secondary education#university#research</td>
454 </tr>
455 <tr>
456 <td>1</td> <td>university#research#general#informal education</td>
457 </tr>
458 <tr>
459 <td>1</td> <td>research#university#amateur</td>
460 </tr>
461 <tr>
462 <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td>
463 </tr>
464 <tr>
465 <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
466 </tr>
467 <tr>
468 <td>1</td> <td>university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
469 </tr>
470 <tr>
471 <td>1</td> <td>general#university#research#informal education</td>
472 </tr>
473 </tbody>
474 </table>
475 </p>
476 <p>
477 This table can be easily updated from the same endpoint (or an analogue
478 one) using the following ADQL query:
479 <pre>
481 count(*) as cnt, content_level
482 FROM
483 rr.resource
485 res_type != 'vstd:servicestandard' and
486 res_type != 'vg:authority' and
487 res_type != 'vstd:standard' and
488 res_type != 'va:application' and
489 res_type != 'vr:organization'
490 GROUP BY content_level
492 </pre>
493 The table shows that only about 1% of the ContentLevel values use
494 something different and more complex than <i>research</i>, when
495 the element is not empty. Morever, of this 1% (165 resources),
496 61 include the <i>general</i> value (roughly 37% of them),
497 29 (17%) state that are devoted to some <i>education</i> level only,
498 while 148 (90%) state that are also devoted to some <i>education</i> level (up to <i>university</i>).
499 </p>
500 </div> <!-- end clcurrval-->
501 </div> <!-- end appendices -->
503 <div class="section-nonum">
504 <h2><a id="references"/><span class="secnum"/>References</h2>
506 <?bibliography ivoadoc/refs?>
508 </div> <!-- section references -->
510 <hr/>
511 </body>
512 </html>

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