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50  </dl>  </dl>
52  <h2>Abstract</h2>  <h2>Abstract</h2>
53  <p >Blah Blah</p>  <p>
54    The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain the needs
55    rising from first attempts in deploying astrophysical resources
56    dedicated to educational purposes inside standard VO resources.
57    Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
58    possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
59    standards.
60    </p>
61    <p>
62    In detail, here is discussed: the curation of educational resources
63    inside or along with standard registration; the reasons for documents,
64    tutorials and similar to be registered and searched through registries
65    alongside with the means of reaching this goal; an idea for resource
66    language internationalization.
67    </p>
68    <p>
69    VO resources as useful material for astronomy and astrophysics
70    education and dissemination has been proved by various international
71    projects and direct request for educational data publishing has arised
72    from networks of educational telescopes.
73    </p>
75  <h2> Status of This Document</h2>  <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
76  <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>  <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>
77  <p> <em >A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a  href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/"><i>current  <p>This is an IVOA Note generated by discussion between Education IG and Registry WG members mainly.</p>
78    <p> <em>A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a  href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/"><i>current
79    IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em > can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>    IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em > can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>
80  <h2 class="prologue-heading-western"  >Acknowledgements</h2>  <h2 class="prologue-heading-western">Acknowledgements</h2>
81  <p>blah</p>  <p>blah</p>
82  </div>  </div>
83  <h2>Contents</h2>  <h2>Contents</h2>
84  <div>  <div>
85  <?toc ?>  <?toc ?>
86  </div>  </div>
88  <div class="body">  <div class="body">
90  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
91  <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>  <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>
92    <p >&nbsp;</p>  <p>
93    Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
94    opportunities for teachers to bring observational astronomy into their
95    classrooms. In fact, there is a growing availability of remotely controlled
96    telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
97    Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
98    to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
99    (http://www.ncra.tifr.res.in/rpl). In some cases, educational telescopes are
100    linked into a network with the aim of guaranteeing the best observing conditions,
101    including deep sky observations during regular daytime school hours, and
102    the best instrument for the particular program of interest. Examples
103    of these networks are iTelescope.net (http://www.itelescope.net) and EuHOU-MW
104    (http://euhou.obspm.fr/public).
105    </p>
106    <p>
107    As telescopes enter classrooms more frequently, interest is growing for a
108    public archive of observations and hence for publishing and curation tools,
109    together with the basic applications needed to retrieve, display
110    and analyze data. The VO already includes most of the technology needed
111    to satisfy the requests of educational observatories. In fact, since several
112    years, VO, and in particular the European project EuroVO, is devoting part
113    of its resources to education (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5). It is
114    therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
115    educational data in VO archives.
116    </p>
117    <p>
118    Alongside with these data collections and service based resources an important
119    role is played also by tutorials and use cases adopted in astrophysics dissemination.
120    Documented step-by-step tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical
121    research performed using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats
122    and have been translated in different lancguages. Providing a way to preserve them
123    and make them easily searchable will be an added value to teachers and researchers
124    involved in education and dissemination, both for astrophysics and the VO.
125    </p>
126    <p>
127    Resource registration for both data services and documents gives a nice answer to
128    the scenario here above described (while efforts for data archiving will rely upon
129    interested data centers), but, while technically this seems not a great problem,
130    from the point of view of keeping clean the resources devoted to education will
131    require some more effort.
132    </p>
133    <p>
134    Next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
135    <a href="#regext">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
136    registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
137    internationalization of resources will be discussed.
138    </p>
139  </div> <!-- section Introduction -->  </div> <!-- section Introduction -->
141  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
142  <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>  <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
143    <p>
144    From a technical point of view there is no need to add new elements or extensions
145    to the existing standard for VO Resources (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>) and extensions
146    to let astrophysical resources devoted to educational, outreach or amateur targets.
147    The only real need for investigating changes in what already exists is due to a
148    use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
149    versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
150    </p>
151    <p>
152    For the sake of simplicity here we will distinguish these two groups of resources as
153    <i>educational</i> and <i>professional</i> but without any intent of putting them
154    on different levels of importance.
155    </p>
156    <div class="section">
157      <h3><a id="eduvspro">Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></h3>
158      <p>
159      On one side, teachers and educators may find it difficult to filter out
160      from all VO resources the ones that are suitable for their tutorials and
161      examples. On the other side, researchers may find annoying having,
162      possibly non-trusted, resources in the output of their search. Again,
163      we stress it is not a matter of the quality of the data deployed, but
164      only a distinction made upon the resources' scope. Moreover, the same
165      resource may be useful for both the goals, but this leads to the same
166      point of discussion: how to properly tag resources?
167      </p>
168      <p>
169      In the next subsection a possible tagging solution, based upon the existing
170      <i>ContentLevel</i> element of VOResource, but requiring a small change
171      to it is presented. The subsequent subsection describes the idea of a
172      curated registry for educational resources and the reasons for it to exist.
173      </p>
174    </div> <!-- subsection eduvspro -->
176    <div class="section">
177      <h3><a id="contentlvl">ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
178      <p>
179      In <cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite> already exists the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
180      allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
181      suitable for one or more of the following audiences:
182      <ul>
183            <li>General</li>
184            <li>Elementary Education</li>
185            <li>Middle School Education</li>
186            <li>Secondary Education</li>
187            <li>Community College</li>
188            <li>University</li>
189            <li>Research</li>
190            <li>Amateur</li>
191            <li>Informal Education</li>
192      </ul>
193      This element turns out to be misused by resource publisher probably because
194      it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
195      possibilities are. Probably, simplifying the view on this element, e.g.
196      restricting to only three:
197      <ul>
198            <li>General</li>
199            <li>Research</li>
200            <li>Amateur</li>
201      </ul>
202      possible values may lead to both a better description of their resources
203      by data providers and a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
204      differently targeted resources at client level.
205      </p>
206      <p>
207      This change in the already existing standard will require small or no
208      changes on the already registered resources (MM provide a couple of
209      figures to justify this!) and thus will not disrupt what exists or
210      trouble VO publishers.
211      </p>
212    </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
214  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
215    <h3><a id="foo">Subsection</a></h3>    <h3><a id="edureg">Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
216    <p>Subsection blah</p>    <p>
217  </div> <!-- subsection foo -->    Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
218      a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
219      educators to easily access the wanted data and services. A good example
220      for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas, that has a
221      built in curated set of resources suitable for educational level
222      tutorials.
223      </p>
224      <p>
225      Curation will require some effort in managing and keeping up to date
226      such a registry but, most important, has some restrictions coming from
227      the IVOA resource registry architecture.
228      </p>
229      <p>
230      If such a registry were a standard local registry (<cite>std:RI1</cite>)
231      its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
232      that any educational dedicated resource will go up to the full VO
233      set of resources, which is what we don't want to happen to keep the
234      <i>professional</i> side to be robust.
235      </p>
236      <p>
237      If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
238      resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
239      scope the registry has to be preservde for.
240      </p>
241      <p>
242      What is needed is a resource (the curated registry) capable of :
243      <ul>
244            <li><i>manually</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
245            (e.g. from a full registry);</li>
246            <li>register its own educational resources without being directly
247            harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
248            sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
249            resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li>
250      </ul>
251      </p>
252      <p>
253      The drawing in Fig. 1 exemplifies the above descripted
254      scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
255      while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
256      be curated.
257      <img src="curation.png"></img>
258      </p>
259    </div> <!-- subsection edureg -->
261  </div> <!-- section curreg -->  </div> <!-- section curreg -->
263  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
# Line 143  Line 326 
327  </div> <!-- section regext -->  </div> <!-- section regext -->
329    <div class="section">
330    <h2><a id="lang">Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
331    <p>
332    The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
333    in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
334    educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
335    audience not skilled enough with the english language. It would be an added
336    value in this case to be able to register an educational or
337    documental resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
338    standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
339    </p>
340    <p>
341    Here what it would be nice to discuss is whether this means:
342    <ul>
343      <li>changing VOResource to allow different languages in resource
344      descriptions;</li>
345      <li>enable internazionalization in VO resources within existing
346      resources: one resource described in multiple languages</li>
347      <li>other...</li>
348    </ul>
349    </p>
350    </div> <!-- section lang -->
352  </div> <!-- body -->  </div> <!-- body -->
354  <div class="appendices">  <div class="appendices">

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