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44 <p style='position: absolute; left: 15pt; top: 50pt;'><span style='font-weight: bold;'>O</span> bservatory</p>
45 <p style='position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 75pt;'><span style='font-weight: bold;'>A</span> lliance</p>
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47 </div>
48 <h1>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory<br/>
49 Version <span class="docversion">0.1</span></h1>
50 <h2 class="subtitle">Filled in automatically</h2>
51 <dl>
52 <dt>Working Group</dt>
53 <dd><a href="http://wiki.ivoa.net/twiki/bin/view/IVOA/WebHome">Edu IG</a></dd>
54 <dt><b>This version:</b></dt>
55 <dd><a href="" class="currentlink">filled in automatically</a></dd>
56 <dt><b>Latest version:</b></dt>
57 <dd> not issued outside
58 EDU-IG</dd>
59 <dt><b>Previous version(s):</b></dt>
60 <dd> None</dd>
61 <dt><b>Author(s):</b></dt>
62 <dd>Marco Molinaro<br/>
63 Markus Demleitner<br/>
64 Massimo Ramella</dd>
65 </dl>
67 <h2>Abstract</h2>
68 <p>
69 The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain practices followed
70 and requirements found while creating and
71 deploying astrophysical resources
72 dedicated to educational purposes within the standard VO framework.
73 Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
74 possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
75 standards.
76 </p>
78 <p>In detail, we discuss: the curation of educational resources inside or
79 along with standard registries; use cases and techniques for registering
80 and locating documents, tutorials and similar within the registries;
81 dealing with multiple languages.</p>
83 <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
84 <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>
85 <p>This is an IVOA Note generated by discussion between Education IG and Registry WG members mainly.</p>
86 <p> <em>A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/"><i>current
87 IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em > can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>
88 <h2 class="prologue-heading-western">Acknowledgements</h2>
89 <p>blah</p>
90 </div>
91 <h2>Contents</h2>
92 <div>
93 <?toc ?>
94 </div>
96 <div class="body">
98 <div class="section">
99 <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>
100 <p>
101 Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
102 opportunities for teachers to bring astronomy into their
103 classrooms. As the VO makes science-grade data publicly available and
104 classroom sets of (suitably) networked PCs are now standard in schools,
105 exciting projects come within reach of common schools. To realize the
106 possiblities, it is important to disseminate material to help teachers
107 tap into these resources. These include documented step-by-step
108 tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical research performed
109 using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats and
110 have been translated in different languages.
111 </p>
113 <p>But new opportunities also come on the observational side.
114 There is a growing availability of remotely controlled
115 telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
116 Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
117 to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
118 (http://www.ncra.tifr.res.in/rpl). In some cases, educational telescopes are
119 linked into a network with the aim of guaranteeing the best observing conditions,
120 including deep sky observations during regular daytime school hours, and
121 the best instrument for the particular program of interest. Examples
122 of these networks are iTelescope.net (http://www.itelescope.net) and EuHOU-MW
123 (http://euhou.obspm.fr/public).
124 </p>
125 <p>
126 As telescopes enter classrooms more frequently, interest is growing for a
127 public archive of observations and hence for publishing and curation tools,
128 together with the basic applications needed to retrieve, display
129 and analyze data. The VO already includes most of the technology needed
130 to satisfy the requests of educational observatories. In fact, since several
131 years, VO, and in particular the European project EuroVO, is devoting part
132 of its resources to education (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5). It is
133 therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
134 educational data in VO archives.
135 </p>
137 <p>Resource registration for both data services and documents is the
138 obvious answer to the questions raised by this scenario. While
139 technically this seems not a great problem, keeping too technical
140 research services out of the the resources devoted to education will
141 require some effort, as will avoiding a contamination of the "research
142 VO" with obviously inadequate material.</p>
144 <p>The next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
145 <a href="#regext">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
146 registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
147 internationalization of resources will be discussed.
148 </p>
149 </div> <!-- section Introduction -->
151 <div class="section">
152 <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
153 <p>
154 From a technical point of view the registration of educational services
155 does not require extensions
156 to the existing for VOResource standard (<cite>std:VOR</cite>).
157 The only real need for investigating changes to what already exists is due to a
158 use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
159 versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
160 </p>
161 <p>
162 For the sake of simplicity here we will distinguish these two groups of resources as
163 <i>educational</i> and <i>professional</i> but without any intent of putting them
164 on different levels of importance.
165 </p>
166 <div class="section">
167 <h3><a id="eduvspro">Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></h3>
168 <p>
169 On one side, teachers and educators may find it difficult to filter out
170 from all VO resources the ones that are suitable for their tutorials and
171 examples. On the other side, researchers may find annoying having,
172 possibly non-trusted, resources in the output of their search. Again,
173 we stress it is not a matter of the quality of the data deployed, but
174 only a distinction made upon the resources' scope. Moreover, the same
175 resource may be useful for both the goals, but this leads to the same
176 point of discussion: how to properly tag resources?
177 </p>
178 <p>
179 In the next subsection a possible tagging solution, based upon the existing
180 <i>ContentLevel</i> element of VOResource, but requiring a small change
181 to, it is presented. The subsequent subsection describes the idea of a
182 curated registry for educational resources and the reasons for it to exist.
183 </p>
184 </div> <!-- subsection eduvspro -->
186 <div class="section">
187 <h3><a id="contentlvl">ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
188 <p>
189 <cite>std:VOR</cite> already has the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
190 allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
191 suitable for one or more of the following audiences:</p>
192 <ul>
193 <li>General</li>
194 <li>Elementary Education</li>
195 <li>Middle School Education</li>
196 <li>Secondary Education</li>
197 <li>Community College</li>
198 <li>University</li>
199 <li>Research</li>
200 <li>Amateur</li>
201 <li>Informal Education</li>
202 </ul>
203 <p>This element turns out to be misused by many publishers, presumably because
204 it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
205 possibilities are; also, requiring a fairly substantial enumeration to
206 convey "for school use" seems, in retrospect, not likely to promote
207 widespread adoption. We hence propose to simplify the content model
208 to:</p>
209 <ul>
210 <li>General</li>
211 <li>Research</li>
212 <li>Amateur</li>
213 </ul>
214 <p>We expect this to make publishers to, on average, better describe
215 their resources while still providing
216 a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
217 differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to
218 add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even
219 substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.
220 </p>
221 <p>
222 This change in the already existing standard will require only
223 a small effort to update already registered resources because nearly 97% of
224 them currently have ContentLevel set to <i>research</i>, about 2% of them have
225 no ContentLevel defined at all and only the remaining (about 1%) have a different value
226 (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these
227 figures).
228 </p>
229 <p>Until the change in VOResource can be effected, the proposed
230 change can work as a "best practice" recommendation, possibly even on
231 registry level, where registries can map University to Research and
232 everything else except Amateur to General.</p>
233 </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
235 <div class="section">
236 <h3><a id="edureg">Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
237 <p>
238 Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
239 a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
240 educators let their students work with a registry without having to
241 worry about confusing material or overwhelming data sizes. A good example
242 for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas that has a
243 built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level
244 tutorials.
245 </p>
246 <p>
247 Curation will require some effort in managing and keeping up to date
248 such a registry but, most important, has some restrictions coming from
249 the IVOA resource registry architecture.
250 </p>
251 <p>
252 If such a registry were a standard publishing registry
253 (<cite>std:RI1</cite>),
254 its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
255 that any dedicated educational resource would end up in the full VO
256 set of resources. For reasons mentioned above, this does not seem
257 desirable.</p>
258 <p>
259 If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
260 resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
261 scope the registry has to be preservde for.
262 </p>
263 <p>
264 What is needed is a resource (the curated, in <cite>std:RI1</cite>
265 parlance, local, registry) capable of :
266 <ul>
267 <li><i>selectively</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
268 (e.g. from a full registry);</li>
269 <li>register its own educational resources without being directly
270 harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
271 sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
272 resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li>
273 </ul>
274 </p>
275 <p>
276 In Fig. 1 wie illustrate this <span class="edit">(XXX NO FIGURE IN
278 scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
279 while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
280 be curated.
281 <img src="curation.png"></img>
282 </p>
283 </div> <!-- subsection edureg -->
285 </div> <!-- section curreg -->
287 <div class="section">
288 <h2><a id="regext">Registering Texts</a></h2>
289 <p>Educational material is not only about services -- text-like material
290 like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
291 least as important. Within the VO community, there is a large body of
292 such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
293 researchers <span class="edit">(TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO
294 works).</span></p>
296 <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
297 projects on plain web pages. It was, in consequence, hard to find, with
298 knowledge of it often passed on antecdotically. To remedy this, we
299 propose to keep record of such material in the registry.</p>
301 <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
302 course are also text-like (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>). This extension,
303 however, focuses on metadata important for standards -- e.g.,
304 vocabularies and status -- that is not pertinent for educational
305 material. Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
306 can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
307 the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
308 important. We therefore propose a simple registry extension covering
309 text-like material, dubbed DocRegExt. In the following, we collect
310 use cases for that extension.</p>
313 <div class="section">
314 <h3><a id="regext-usecases">Use Cases</a></h3>
316 <p>The design of DocRegExt has been guided by the desire to fulfill the
317 following use cases:</p>
319 <ul>
320 <li>Is there a tutorial covering discovering intermediate mass black
321 holes? (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
322 <li>Is there a tutorial covering working with X-Ray data? (Standard
323 VOResource is sufficient)</li>
324 <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use?
325 (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
326 <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use in
327 Italian? (That requires the declaration of the document language)</li>
328 <li>What are the subjects of maintained (in the sense of: probably
329 working in the VO as found by the students) tutorials?
330 (The active flag of standard VOResource is
331 unsuitable here since even outdated resources will still be accessible;
332 therefore, we introduce the maintained flag)</li>
333 <li>Are there tutorials using redshifts? (This is solved by allowing
334 table metadata in DocRegExt)</li>
335 <li>Where can I find an editable version of tutorial ivo://auth/tut1?
336 (This is solved by allowing multiple access URLs with different content
337 types, which should be sufficient to allow answering the question)</li>
338 <li>Are there translations of tutorial ivo://auth/tut2? (This is covered
339 by the recommendations on declaring relationships between text-like
340 resources)</li>
341 <li>Is there material using service ivo://auth/svc1? (Again, declaring
342 relationships covers this use case)</li>
343 <li>Is there material about something visible tonight? (In principle,
344 allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow
345 answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
346 information in useable form)</li>
347 <li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror"). Is it
348 the latest version? If not, where can I find an update? (Unless the
349 title of the text changed, standard VOResource should suffice)</li>
350 </ul>
351 </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
353 <p>On the use cases of locating editable forms of such texts -- which
354 has been found to be necessary fairly regularly -- we note in passing
355 that representing source-product relationships is in principle in the
356 domain of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry. However, in
357 the case discussed here the relation is so simple and its representation
358 so useful that we propose to include it in a DocRegExt.</p>
360 <p class="edit">Actually write the extension</p>
362 </div> <!-- section regext -->
364 <div class="section">
365 <h2><a id="lang">Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
366 <p>
367 The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
368 in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
369 educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
370 audience not skilled enough with the English language. It would be an added
371 value in this case to be able to register an educational or
372 document resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
373 standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
374 </p>
375 <p>
376 Here what it would be nice to discuss is whether this means:
377 <ul>
378 <li>changing VOResource to allow different languages in resource
379 descriptions;</li>
380 <li>enable internazionalization in VO resources within existing
381 resources: one resource described in multiple languages</li>
382 <li>other...</li>
383 </ul>
384 </p>
385 </div> <!-- section lang -->
387 </div> <!-- body -->
389 <div class="appendices">
390 <div class="section">
391 <h2><a id="clcurrval">ContentLevel values summary</a></h2>
392 <p>
393 This appendix reports some statistics on the usage of the ContentLevel
394 element in <cite>std:VOR</cite> as of 2014-01-30, taken from the
395 GAVO RegTAP endpoint http://dc.g-vo.org/tap .
396 There are 14392 useful resources (excluding authorities, standards and
397 similar) that expose 26 different values as their ContentLevel.
398 In the following table these values are reported in order of count.
399 </p>
400 <p>
401 <table class="plain">
402 <thead>
403 <tr>
404 <th>count</th> <th>content_level string</th>
405 </tr>
406 </thead>
407 <tbody>
408 <tr>
409 <td>13937</td> <td>research</td>
410 </tr>
411 <tr>
412 <td>290</td> <td>&nbsp;</td>
413 </tr>
414 <tr>
415 <td>41</td> <td>university#research</td>
416 </tr>
417 <tr>
418 <td>40</td> <td>general#university#research#amateur</td>
419 </tr>
420 <tr>
421 <td>24</td> <td>university</td>
422 </tr>
423 <tr>
424 <td>14</td> <td>university#research#amateur</td>
425 </tr>
426 <tr>
427 <td>7</td> <td>general</td>
428 </tr>
429 <tr>
430 <td>5</td> <td>research#general</td>
431 </tr>
432 <tr>
433 <td>4</td> <td>general#research</td>
434 </tr>
435 <tr>
436 <td>3</td> <td>secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td>
437 </tr>
438 <tr>
439 <td>3</td> <td>research#university#community college</td>
440 </tr>
441 <tr>
442 <td>3</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education</td>
443 </tr>
444 <tr>
445 <td>3</td> <td>general#university#research</td>
446 </tr>
447 <tr>
448 <td>2</td> <td>research#university</td>
449 </tr>
450 <tr>
451 <td>2</td> <td>research#amateur#university#community college</td>
452 </tr>
453 <tr>
454 <td>2</td> <td>general#informal education</td>
455 </tr>
456 <tr>
457 <td>2</td> <td>general#elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
458 </tr>
459 <tr>
460 <td>1</td> <td>university#community college#research</td>
461 </tr>
462 <tr>
463 <td>1</td> <td>general#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
464 </tr>
465 <tr>
466 <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research</td>
467 </tr>
468 <tr>
469 <td>1</td> <td>general#secondary education#university#research</td>
470 </tr>
471 <tr>
472 <td>1</td> <td>university#research#general#informal education</td>
473 </tr>
474 <tr>
475 <td>1</td> <td>research#university#amateur</td>
476 </tr>
477 <tr>
478 <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td>
479 </tr>
480 <tr>
481 <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
482 </tr>
483 <tr>
484 <td>1</td> <td>university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
485 </tr>
486 <tr>
487 <td>1</td> <td>general#university#research#informal education</td>
488 </tr>
489 </tbody>
490 </table>
491 </p>
492 <p>
493 This table can be easily updated from the same endpoint (or an analogue
494 one) using the following ADQL query:
495 <pre>
497 count(*) as cnt, content_level
498 FROM
499 rr.resource
501 res_type != 'vstd:servicestandard' and
502 res_type != 'vg:authority' and
503 res_type != 'vstd:standard' and
504 res_type != 'va:application' and
505 res_type != 'vr:organization'
506 GROUP BY content_level
508 </pre>
509 The table shows that only about 1% of the ContentLevel values use
510 something different and more complex than <i>research</i>, when
511 the element is not empty. Morever, of this 1% (165 resources),
512 61 include the <i>general</i> value (roughly 37% of them),
513 29 (17%) state that are devoted to some <i>education</i> level only,
514 while 148 (90%) state that are also devoted to some <i>education</i> level (up to <i>university</i>).
515 </p>
516 </div> <!-- end clcurrval-->
517 </div> <!-- end appendices -->
519 <div class="section-nonum">
520 <h2><a id="references"/><span class="secnum"/>References</h2>
522 <?bibliography ivoadoc/refs?>
524 </div> <!-- section references -->
526 <hr/>
527 </body>
528 </html>

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