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48 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h1>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory<br/>
49 volute@g-vo.org 2302 Version <span class="docversion">0.1</span></h1>
50     <h2 class="subtitle">Filled in automatically</h2>
51     <dl>
52     <dt>Working Group</dt>
53 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd><a href="http://wiki.ivoa.net/twiki/bin/view/IVOA/WebHome">Edu IG</a></dd>
54 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>This version:</b></dt>
55     <dd><a href="" class="currentlink">filled in automatically</a></dd>
56     <dt><b>Latest version:</b></dt>
57     <dd> not issued outside
58 volute@g-vo.org 2304 EDU-IG</dd>
59 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>Previous version(s):</b></dt>
60 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd> None</dd>
61 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>Author(s):</b></dt>
62 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd>Marco Molinaro<br/>
63     Markus Demleitner<br/>
64     Massimo Ramella</dd>
65 volute@g-vo.org 2302 </dl>
66    
67     <h2>Abstract</h2>
68 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
69 volute@g-vo.org 2410 The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain practices followed
70     and requirements found while creating and
71     deploying astrophysical resources
72     dedicated to educational purposes within the standard VO framework.
73 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
74     possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
75     standards.
76     </p>
77    
78 volute@g-vo.org 2410 <p>In detail, we discuss: the curation of educational resources inside or
79     along with standard registries; use cases and techniques for registering
80     and locating documents, tutorials and similar within the registries;
81     dealing with multiple languages.</p>
82    
83 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
84     <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>
85 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>This is an IVOA Note generated by discussion between Education IG and Registry WG members mainly.</p>
86     <p> <em>A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/"><i>current
87 volute@g-vo.org 2302 IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em > can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>
88 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <h2 class="prologue-heading-western">Acknowledgements</h2>
89 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <p>blah</p>
90     </div>
91     <h2>Contents</h2>
92     <div>
93     <?toc ?>
94     </div>
95 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307
96 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="body">
97 volute@g-vo.org 2304
98 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="section">
99     <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>
100 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
101     Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
102 volute@g-vo.org 2410 opportunities for teachers to bring astronomy into their
103     classrooms. As the VO makes science-grade data publicly available and
104     classroom sets of (suitably) networked PCs are now standard in schools,
105     exciting projects come within reach of common schools. To realize the
106     possiblities, it is important to disseminate material to help teachers
107     tap into these resources. These include documented step-by-step
108     tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical research performed
109     using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats and
110     have been translated in different languages.
111     </p>
112    
113     <p>But new opportunities also come on the observational side.
114     There is a growing availability of remotely controlled
115 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
116     Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
117     to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
118     (http://www.ncra.tifr.res.in/rpl). In some cases, educational telescopes are
119     linked into a network with the aim of guaranteeing the best observing conditions,
120     including deep sky observations during regular daytime school hours, and
121     the best instrument for the particular program of interest. Examples
122     of these networks are iTelescope.net (http://www.itelescope.net) and EuHOU-MW
123     (http://euhou.obspm.fr/public).
124     </p>
125     <p>
126     As telescopes enter classrooms more frequently, interest is growing for a
127     public archive of observations and hence for publishing and curation tools,
128     together with the basic applications needed to retrieve, display
129     and analyze data. The VO already includes most of the technology needed
130     to satisfy the requests of educational observatories. In fact, since several
131     years, VO, and in particular the European project EuroVO, is devoting part
132     of its resources to education (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5). It is
133     therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
134     educational data in VO archives.
135     </p>
136 volute@g-vo.org 2410
137     <p>Resource registration for both data services and documents is the
138     obvious answer to the questions raised by this scenario. While
139     technically this seems not a great problem, keeping too technical
140     research services out of the the resources devoted to education will
141     require some effort, as will avoiding a contamination of the "research
142     VO" with obviously inadequate material.</p>
143    
144     <p>The next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
145 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <a href="#regext">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
146     registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
147     internationalization of resources will be discussed.
148     </p>
149 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- section Introduction -->
150    
151 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="section">
152 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
153 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
154 volute@g-vo.org 2410 From a technical point of view the registration of educational services
155     does not require extensions
156     to the existing for VOResource standard (<cite>std:VOR</cite>).
157     The only real need for investigating changes to what already exists is due to a
158 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
159     versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
160     </p>
161     <p>
162     For the sake of simplicity here we will distinguish these two groups of resources as
163     <i>educational</i> and <i>professional</i> but without any intent of putting them
164     on different levels of importance.
165     </p>
166 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <div class="section">
167 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <h3><a id="eduvspro">Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></h3>
168     <p>
169     On one side, teachers and educators may find it difficult to filter out
170     from all VO resources the ones that are suitable for their tutorials and
171     examples. On the other side, researchers may find annoying having,
172     possibly non-trusted, resources in the output of their search. Again,
173     we stress it is not a matter of the quality of the data deployed, but
174     only a distinction made upon the resources' scope. Moreover, the same
175     resource may be useful for both the goals, but this leads to the same
176     point of discussion: how to properly tag resources?
177     </p>
178     <p>
179     In the next subsection a possible tagging solution, based upon the existing
180     <i>ContentLevel</i> element of VOResource, but requiring a small change
181 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 to, it is presented. The subsequent subsection describes the idea of a
182 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 curated registry for educational resources and the reasons for it to exist.
183     </p>
184     </div> <!-- subsection eduvspro -->
185    
186     <div class="section">
187     <h3><a id="contentlvl">ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
188     <p>
189 volute@g-vo.org 2410 <cite>std:VOR</cite> already has the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
190 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
191 volute@g-vo.org 2410 suitable for one or more of the following audiences:</p>
192 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <ul>
193     <li>General</li>
194     <li>Elementary Education</li>
195     <li>Middle School Education</li>
196     <li>Secondary Education</li>
197     <li>Community College</li>
198     <li>University</li>
199     <li>Research</li>
200     <li>Amateur</li>
201     <li>Informal Education</li>
202     </ul>
203 volute@g-vo.org 2410 <p>This element turns out to be misused by many publishers, presumably because
204 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
205 volute@g-vo.org 2410 possibilities are; also, requiring a fairly substantial enumeration to
206     convey "for school use" seems, in retrospect, not likely to promote
207     widespread adoption. We hence propose to simplify the content model
208     to:</p>
209 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <ul>
210     <li>General</li>
211     <li>Research</li>
212     <li>Amateur</li>
213     </ul>
214 volute@g-vo.org 2410 <p>We expect this to make publishers to, on average, better describe
215     their resources while still providing
216     a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
217 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to
218     add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even
219     substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.
220 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 </p>
221     <p>
222 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 This change in the already existing standard will require only
223 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 a small effort to update already registered resources because nearly 97% of
224     them currently have ContentLevel set to <i>research</i>, about 2% of them have
225     no ContentLevel defined at all and only the remaining (about 1%) have a different value
226 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these
227     figures).
228 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 </p>
229 volute@g-vo.org 2410 <p>Until the change in VOResource can be effected, the proposed
230     change can work as a "best practice" recommendation, possibly even on
231     registry level, where registries can map University to Research and
232     everything else except Amateur to General.</p>
233 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
234    
235     <div class="section">
236     <h3><a id="edureg">Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
237     <p>
238     Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
239     a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
240 volute@g-vo.org 2410 educators let their students work with a registry without having to
241     worry about confusing material or overwhelming data sizes. A good example
242     for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas that has a
243 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level
244 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 tutorials.
245     </p>
246     <p>
247     Curation will require some effort in managing and keeping up to date
248     such a registry but, most important, has some restrictions coming from
249     the IVOA resource registry architecture.
250     </p>
251     <p>
252 volute@g-vo.org 2410 If such a registry were a standard publishing registry
253     (<cite>std:RI1</cite>),
254 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
255 volute@g-vo.org 2410 that any dedicated educational resource would end up in the full VO
256     set of resources. For reasons mentioned above, this does not seem
257     desirable.</p>
258 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
259     If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
260     resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
261     scope the registry has to be preservde for.
262     </p>
263     <p>
264 volute@g-vo.org 2410 What is needed is a resource (the curated, in <cite>std:RI1</cite>
265     parlance, local, registry) capable of :
266 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <ul>
267 volute@g-vo.org 2410 <li><i>selectively</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
268 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 (e.g. from a full registry);</li>
269     <li>register its own educational resources without being directly
270     harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
271     sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
272     resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li>
273     </ul>
274     </p>
275     <p>
276 volute@g-vo.org 2410 In Fig. 1 wie illustrate this <span class="edit">(XXX NO FIGURE IN
277     SVN, PLUS MAKE THIS A CAPTION XXX)</span>
278 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
279     while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
280     be curated.
281     <img src="curation.png"></img>
282     </p>
283     </div> <!-- subsection edureg -->
284    
285 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- section curreg -->
286    
287     <div class="section">
288     <h2><a id="regext">Registering Texts</a></h2>
289     <p>Educational material is not only about services -- text-like material
290     like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
291     least as important. Within the VO community, there is a large body of
292     such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
293 volute@g-vo.org 2410 researchers <span class="edit">(TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO
294     works).</span></p>
295 volute@g-vo.org 2304
296     <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
297 volute@g-vo.org 2410 projects on plain web pages. It was, in consequence, hard to find, with
298     knowledge of it often passed on antecdotically. To remedy this, we
299     propose to keep record of such material in the registry.</p>
300 volute@g-vo.org 2304
301     <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
302     course are also text-like (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>). This extension,
303     however, focuses on metadata important for standards -- e.g.,
304     vocabularies and status -- that is not pertinent for educational
305     material. Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
306     can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
307     the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
308 volute@g-vo.org 2410 important. We therefore propose a simple registry extension covering
309     text-like material, dubbed DocRegExt. In the following, we collect
310     use cases for that extension.</p>
311 volute@g-vo.org 2304
312 volute@g-vo.org 2410
313 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <div class="section">
314     <h3><a id="regext-usecases">Use Cases</a></h3>
315    
316     <p>The design of DocRegExt has been guided by the desire to fulfill the
317     following use cases:</p>
318    
319     <ul>
320     <li>Is there a tutorial covering discovering intermediate mass black
321     holes? (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
322     <li>Is there a tutorial covering working with X-Ray data? (Standard
323     VOResource is sufficient)</li>
324     <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use?
325     (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
326     <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use in
327     Italian? (That requires the declaration of the document language)</li>
328     <li>What are the subjects of maintained (in the sense of: probably
329     working in the VO as found by the students) tutorials?
330     (The active flag of standard VOResource is
331     unsuitable here since even outdated resources will still be accessible;
332     therefore, we introduce the maintained flag)</li>
333     <li>Are there tutorials using redshifts? (This is solved by allowing
334     table metadata in DocRegExt)</li>
335     <li>Where can I find an editable version of tutorial ivo://auth/tut1?
336     (This is solved by allowing multiple access URLs with different content
337     types, which should be sufficient to allow answering the question)</li>
338     <li>Are there translations of tutorial ivo://auth/tut2? (This is covered
339     by the recommendations on declaring relationships between text-like
340     resources)</li>
341     <li>Is there material using service ivo://auth/svc1? (Again, declaring
342     relationships covers this use case)</li>
343     <li>Is there material about something visible tonight? (In principle,
344     allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow
345     answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
346     information in useable form)</li>
347 volute@g-vo.org 2309 <li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror"). Is it
348 volute@g-vo.org 2410 the latest version? If not, where can I find an update? (Unless the
349     title of the text changed, standard VOResource should suffice)</li>
350 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </ul>
351     </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
352    
353 volute@g-vo.org 2410 <p>On the use cases of locating editable forms of such texts -- which
354     has been found to be necessary fairly regularly -- we note in passing
355     that representing source-product relationships is in principle in the
356     domain of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry. However, in
357     the case discussed here the relation is so simple and its representation
358     so useful that we propose to include it in a DocRegExt.</p>
359    
360     <p class="edit">Actually write the extension</p>
361    
362 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- section regext -->
363    
364 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <div class="section">
365     <h2><a id="lang">Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
366     <p>
367     The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
368     in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
369     educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
370 volute@g-vo.org 2410 audience not skilled enough with the English language. It would be an added
371 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 value in this case to be able to register an educational or
372 volute@g-vo.org 2410 document resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
373 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
374     </p>
375     <p>
376     Here what it would be nice to discuss is whether this means:
377     <ul>
378     <li>changing VOResource to allow different languages in resource
379     descriptions;</li>
380     <li>enable internazionalization in VO resources within existing
381     resources: one resource described in multiple languages</li>
382     <li>other...</li>
383     </ul>
384     </p>
385     </div> <!-- section lang -->
386    
387 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- body -->
388    
389     <div class="appendices">
390     <div class="section">
391 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <h2><a id="clcurrval">ContentLevel values summary</a></h2>
392     <p>
393     This appendix reports some statistics on the usage of the ContentLevel
394 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 element in <cite>std:VOR</cite> as of 2014-01-30, taken from the
395     GAVO RegTAP endpoint http://dc.g-vo.org/tap .
396     There are 14392 useful resources (excluding authorities, standards and
397     similar) that expose 26 different values as their ContentLevel.
398 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 In the following table these values are reported in order of count.
399     </p>
400     <p>
401     <table class="plain">
402     <thead>
403     <tr>
404     <th>count</th> <th>content_level string</th>
405     </tr>
406     </thead>
407     <tbody>
408 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
409     <td>13937</td> <td>research</td>
410 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
411     <tr>
412 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>290</td> <td>&nbsp;</td>
413 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
414 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
415     <td>41</td> <td>university#research</td>
416 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
417     <tr>
418 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>40</td> <td>general#university#research#amateur</td>
419 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
420 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
421 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>24</td> <td>university</td>
422     </tr>
423     <tr>
424     <td>14</td> <td>university#research#amateur</td>
425     </tr>
426 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
427     <td>7</td> <td>general</td>
428 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
429     <tr>
430     <td>5</td> <td>research#general</td>
431     </tr>
432 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
433 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>4</td> <td>general#research</td>
434     </tr>
435     <tr>
436     <td>3</td> <td>secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td>
437     </tr>
438 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
439     <td>3</td> <td>research#university#community college</td>
440     </tr>
441     <tr>
442 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>3</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education</td>
443     </tr>
444     <tr>
445 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>3</td> <td>general#university#research</td>
446 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
447 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
448     <td>2</td> <td>research#university</td>
449 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
450     <tr>
451 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>2</td> <td>research#amateur#university#community college</td>
452 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
453 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
454 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>2</td> <td>general#informal education</td>
455     </tr>
456     <tr>
457 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>2</td> <td>general#elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
458 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
459 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
460     <td>1</td> <td>university#community college#research</td>
461 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
462     <tr>
463 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>1</td> <td>general#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
464 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
465 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
466     <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research</td>
467 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
468     <tr>
469 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>1</td> <td>general#secondary education#university#research</td>
470     </tr>
471     <tr>
472 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>1</td> <td>university#research#general#informal education</td>
473     </tr>
474 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
475     <td>1</td> <td>research#university#amateur</td>
476 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
477     <tr>
478     <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td>
479     </tr>
480 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
481 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
482     </tr>
483     <tr>
484     <td>1</td> <td>university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
485     </tr>
486     <tr>
487 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>1</td> <td>general#university#research#informal education</td>
488 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
489     </tbody>
490     </table>
491     </p>
492     <p>
493     This table can be easily updated from the same endpoint (or an analogue
494     one) using the following ADQL query:
495     <pre>
496     SELECT
497     count(*) as cnt, content_level
498     FROM
499     rr.resource
500     WHERE
501     res_type != 'vstd:servicestandard' and
502     res_type != 'vg:authority' and
503     res_type != 'vstd:standard' and
504 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 res_type != 'va:application' and
505 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 res_type != 'vr:organization'
506     GROUP BY content_level
507     ORDER BY cnt DESC
508     </pre>
509     The table shows that only about 1% of the ContentLevel values use
510     something different and more complex than <i>research</i>, when
511 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 the element is not empty. Morever, of this 1% (165 resources),
512     61 include the <i>general</i> value (roughly 37% of them),
513     29 (17%) state that are devoted to some <i>education</i> level only,
514     while 148 (90%) state that are also devoted to some <i>education</i> level (up to <i>university</i>).
515 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </p>
516     </div> <!-- end clcurrval-->
517     </div> <!-- end appendices -->
518 volute@g-vo.org 2302
519     <div class="section-nonum">
520 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h2><a id="references"/><span class="secnum"/>References</h2>
521    
522     <?bibliography ivoadoc/refs?>
523    
524     </div> <!-- section references -->
525    
526 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <hr/>
527     </body>
528     </html>

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