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46 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h1>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory<br/>
47 volute@g-vo.org 2302 Version <span class="docversion">0.1</span></h1>
48     <h2 class="subtitle">Filled in automatically</h2>
49     <dl>
50     <dt>Working Group</dt>
51 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd><a href="http://wiki.ivoa.net/twiki/bin/view/IVOA/WebHome">Edu IG</a></dd>
52 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>This version:</b></dt>
53     <dd><a href="" class="currentlink">filled in automatically</a></dd>
54     <dt><b>Latest version:</b></dt>
55     <dd> not issued outside
56 volute@g-vo.org 2304 EDU-IG</dd>
57 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>Previous version(s):</b></dt>
58 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd> None</dd>
59 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>Author(s):</b></dt>
60 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd>Marco Molinaro<br/>
61     Markus Demleitner<br/>
62     Massimo Ramella</dd>
63 volute@g-vo.org 2302 </dl>
64    
65     <h2>Abstract</h2>
66 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
67     The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain the needs
68     rising from first attempts in deploying astrophysical resources
69     dedicated to educational purposes inside standard VO resources.
70     Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
71     possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
72     standards.
73     </p>
74     <p>
75     In detail, here is discussed: the curation of educational resources
76     inside or along with standard registration; the reasons for documents,
77     tutorials and similar to be registered and searched through registries
78     alongside with the means of reaching this goal; an idea for resource
79     language internationalization.
80     </p>
81     <p>
82     VO resources as useful material for astronomy and astrophysics
83     education and dissemination has been proved by various international
84     projects and direct request for educational data publishing has arised
85     from networks of educational telescopes.
86     </p>
87    
88 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
89     <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>
90 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>This is an IVOA Note generated by discussion between Education IG and Registry WG members mainly.</p>
91     <p> <em>A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/"><i>current
92 volute@g-vo.org 2302 IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em > can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>
93 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <h2 class="prologue-heading-western">Acknowledgements</h2>
94 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <p>blah</p>
95     </div>
96     <h2>Contents</h2>
97     <div>
98     <?toc ?>
99     </div>
100 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307
101 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="body">
102 volute@g-vo.org 2304
103 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="section">
104     <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>
105 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
106     Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
107     opportunities for teachers to bring observational astronomy into their
108     classrooms. In fact, there is a growing availability of remotely controlled
109     telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
110     Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
111     to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
112     (http://www.ncra.tifr.res.in/rpl). In some cases, educational telescopes are
113     linked into a network with the aim of guaranteeing the best observing conditions,
114     including deep sky observations during regular daytime school hours, and
115     the best instrument for the particular program of interest. Examples
116     of these networks are iTelescope.net (http://www.itelescope.net) and EuHOU-MW
117     (http://euhou.obspm.fr/public).
118     </p>
119     <p>
120     As telescopes enter classrooms more frequently, interest is growing for a
121     public archive of observations and hence for publishing and curation tools,
122     together with the basic applications needed to retrieve, display
123     and analyze data. The VO already includes most of the technology needed
124     to satisfy the requests of educational observatories. In fact, since several
125     years, VO, and in particular the European project EuroVO, is devoting part
126     of its resources to education (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5). It is
127     therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
128     educational data in VO archives.
129     </p>
130     <p>
131     Alongside with these data collections and service based resources an important
132     role is played also by tutorials and use cases adopted in astrophysics dissemination.
133     Documented step-by-step tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical
134     research performed using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats
135     and have been translated in different lancguages. Providing a way to preserve them
136     and make them easily searchable will be an added value to teachers and researchers
137     involved in education and dissemination, both for astrophysics and the VO.
138     </p>
139     <p>
140     Resource registration for both data services and documents gives a nice answer to
141     the scenario here above described (while efforts for data archiving will rely upon
142     interested data centers), but, while technically this seems not a great problem,
143     from the point of view of keeping clean the resources devoted to education will
144     require some more effort.
145     </p>
146     <p>
147     Next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
148     <a href="#regext">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
149     registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
150     internationalization of resources will be discussed.
151     </p>
152 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- section Introduction -->
153    
154 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="section">
155 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
156 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
157     From a technical point of view there is no need to add new elements or extensions
158     to the existing standard for VO Resources (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>) and extensions
159     to let astrophysical resources devoted to educational, outreach or amateur targets.
160     The only real need for investigating changes in what already exists is due to a
161     use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
162     versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
163     </p>
164     <p>
165     For the sake of simplicity here we will distinguish these two groups of resources as
166     <i>educational</i> and <i>professional</i> but without any intent of putting them
167     on different levels of importance.
168     </p>
169 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <div class="section">
170 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <h3><a id="eduvspro">Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></h3>
171     <p>
172     On one side, teachers and educators may find it difficult to filter out
173     from all VO resources the ones that are suitable for their tutorials and
174     examples. On the other side, researchers may find annoying having,
175     possibly non-trusted, resources in the output of their search. Again,
176     we stress it is not a matter of the quality of the data deployed, but
177     only a distinction made upon the resources' scope. Moreover, the same
178     resource may be useful for both the goals, but this leads to the same
179     point of discussion: how to properly tag resources?
180     </p>
181     <p>
182     In the next subsection a possible tagging solution, based upon the existing
183     <i>ContentLevel</i> element of VOResource, but requiring a small change
184 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 to, it is presented. The subsequent subsection describes the idea of a
185 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 curated registry for educational resources and the reasons for it to exist.
186     </p>
187     </div> <!-- subsection eduvspro -->
188    
189     <div class="section">
190     <h3><a id="contentlvl">ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
191     <p>
192     In <cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite> already exists the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
193     allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
194     suitable for one or more of the following audiences:
195     <ul>
196     <li>General</li>
197     <li>Elementary Education</li>
198     <li>Middle School Education</li>
199     <li>Secondary Education</li>
200     <li>Community College</li>
201     <li>University</li>
202     <li>Research</li>
203     <li>Amateur</li>
204     <li>Informal Education</li>
205     </ul>
206     This element turns out to be misused by resource publisher probably because
207     it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
208     possibilities are. Probably, simplifying the view on this element, e.g.
209     restricting to only three:
210     <ul>
211     <li>General</li>
212     <li>Research</li>
213     <li>Amateur</li>
214     </ul>
215     possible values may lead to both a better description of their resources
216     by data providers and a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
217 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to
218     add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even
219     substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.
220 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 </p>
221     <p>
222 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 This change in the already existing standard will require only
223 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 a small effort to update already registered resources because nearly 97% of
224     them currently have ContentLevel set to <i>research</i>, about 2% of them have
225     no ContentLevel defined at all and only the remaining (about 1%) have a different value
226 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these
227     figures).
228 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 </p>
229     </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
230    
231     <div class="section">
232     <h3><a id="edureg">Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
233     <p>
234     Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
235     a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
236     educators to easily access the wanted data and services. A good example
237     for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas, that has a
238 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level
239 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 tutorials.
240     </p>
241     <p>
242     Curation will require some effort in managing and keeping up to date
243     such a registry but, most important, has some restrictions coming from
244     the IVOA resource registry architecture.
245     </p>
246     <p>
247     If such a registry were a standard local registry (<cite>std:RI1</cite>)
248     its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
249 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 that any educational dedicated resource will go into the full VO
250 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 set of resources, which is what we don't want to happen to keep the
251 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <i>professional</i> side robust.
252 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 </p>
253     <p>
254     If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
255     resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
256     scope the registry has to be preservde for.
257     </p>
258     <p>
259     What is needed is a resource (the curated registry) capable of :
260     <ul>
261     <li><i>manually</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
262     (e.g. from a full registry);</li>
263     <li>register its own educational resources without being directly
264     harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
265     sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
266     resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li>
267     </ul>
268     </p>
269     <p>
270     The drawing in Fig. 1 exemplifies the above descripted
271     scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
272     while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
273     be curated.
274     <img src="curation.png"></img>
275     </p>
276     </div> <!-- subsection edureg -->
277    
278 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- section curreg -->
279    
280     <div class="section">
281     <h2><a id="regext">Registering Texts</a></h2>
282     <p>Educational material is not only about services -- text-like material
283     like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
284     least as important. Within the VO community, there is a large body of
285     such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
286     researchers (TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO works).</p>
287    
288     <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
289     projects on plain web pages. It was, in consequence, hard to find it.
290     Also, locating editable forms of such texts -- which has been found to
291     be necessary fairly regularly -- has been at least difficult; while
292     representing source-product relationships is in principle in the domain
293     of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry, in the case of
294     texts the relation is so simple and its representation so useful that we
295     propose to include it in a simple registry extension covering text-like
296     material, dubbed DocRegExt in the following.</p>
297    
298     <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
299     course are also text-like (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>). This extension,
300     however, focuses on metadata important for standards -- e.g.,
301     vocabularies and status -- that is not pertinent for educational
302     material. Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
303     can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
304     the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
305     important.</p>
306    
307     <div class="section">
308     <h3><a id="regext-usecases">Use Cases</a></h3>
309    
310     <p>The design of DocRegExt has been guided by the desire to fulfill the
311     following use cases:</p>
312    
313     <ul>
314     <li>Is there a tutorial covering discovering intermediate mass black
315     holes? (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
316     <li>Is there a tutorial covering working with X-Ray data? (Standard
317     VOResource is sufficient)</li>
318     <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use?
319     (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
320     <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use in
321     Italian? (That requires the declaration of the document language)</li>
322     <li>What are the subjects of maintained (in the sense of: probably
323     working in the VO as found by the students) tutorials?
324     (The active flag of standard VOResource is
325     unsuitable here since even outdated resources will still be accessible;
326     therefore, we introduce the maintained flag)</li>
327     <li>Are there tutorials using redshifts? (This is solved by allowing
328     table metadata in DocRegExt)</li>
329     <li>Where can I find an editable version of tutorial ivo://auth/tut1?
330     (This is solved by allowing multiple access URLs with different content
331     types, which should be sufficient to allow answering the question)</li>
332     <li>Are there translations of tutorial ivo://auth/tut2? (This is covered
333     by the recommendations on declaring relationships between text-like
334     resources)</li>
335     <li>Is there material using service ivo://auth/svc1? (Again, declaring
336     relationships covers this use case)</li>
337     <li>Is there material about something visible tonight? (In principle,
338     allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow
339     answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
340     information in useable form)</li>
341 volute@g-vo.org 2309 <li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror"). Is it
342     the latest version? If not, where can I find an update?</li>
343 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </ul>
344     </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
345    
346     </div> <!-- section regext -->
347    
348 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <div class="section">
349     <h2><a id="lang">Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
350     <p>
351     The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
352     in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
353     educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
354     audience not skilled enough with the english language. It would be an added
355     value in this case to be able to register an educational or
356     documental resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
357     standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
358     </p>
359     <p>
360     Here what it would be nice to discuss is whether this means:
361     <ul>
362     <li>changing VOResource to allow different languages in resource
363     descriptions;</li>
364     <li>enable internazionalization in VO resources within existing
365     resources: one resource described in multiple languages</li>
366     <li>other...</li>
367     </ul>
368     </p>
369     </div> <!-- section lang -->
370    
371 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- body -->
372    
373     <div class="appendices">
374     <div class="section">
375 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <h2><a id="clcurrval">ContentLevel values summary</a></h2>
376     <p>
377     This appendix reports some statistics on the usage of the ContentLevel
378 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 element in <cite>std:VOR</cite> as of 2014-01-30, taken from the
379     GAVO RegTAP endpoint http://dc.g-vo.org/tap .
380     There are 14392 useful resources (excluding authorities, standards and
381     similar) that expose 26 different values as their ContentLevel.
382 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 In the following table these values are reported in order of count.
383     </p>
384     <p>
385     <table class="plain">
386     <thead>
387     <tr>
388     <th>count</th> <th>content_level string</th>
389     </tr>
390     </thead>
391     <tbody>
392 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
393     <td>13937</td> <td>research</td>
394 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
395     <tr>
396 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>290</td> <td>&nbsp;</td>
397 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
398 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
399     <td>41</td> <td>university#research</td>
400 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
401     <tr>
402 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>40</td> <td>general#university#research#amateur</td>
403 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
404 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
405 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>24</td> <td>university</td>
406     </tr>
407     <tr>
408     <td>14</td> <td>university#research#amateur</td>
409     </tr>
410 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
411     <td>7</td> <td>general</td>
412 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
413     <tr>
414     <td>5</td> <td>research#general</td>
415     </tr>
416 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
417 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>4</td> <td>general#research</td>
418     </tr>
419     <tr>
420     <td>3</td> <td>secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td>
421     </tr>
422 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
423     <td>3</td> <td>research#university#community college</td>
424     </tr>
425     <tr>
426 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>3</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education</td>
427     </tr>
428     <tr>
429 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>3</td> <td>general#university#research</td>
430 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
431 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
432     <td>2</td> <td>research#university</td>
433 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
434     <tr>
435 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>2</td> <td>research#amateur#university#community college</td>
436 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
437 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
438 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>2</td> <td>general#informal education</td>
439     </tr>
440     <tr>
441 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>2</td> <td>general#elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
442 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
443 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
444     <td>1</td> <td>university#community college#research</td>
445 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
446     <tr>
447 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>1</td> <td>general#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
448 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
449 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
450     <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research</td>
451 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
452     <tr>
453 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>1</td> <td>general#secondary education#university#research</td>
454     </tr>
455     <tr>
456 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>1</td> <td>university#research#general#informal education</td>
457     </tr>
458 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
459     <td>1</td> <td>research#university#amateur</td>
460 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
461     <tr>
462     <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td>
463     </tr>
464 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <tr>
465 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 <td>1</td> <td>elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
466     </tr>
467     <tr>
468     <td>1</td> <td>university#research#amateur#informal education</td>
469     </tr>
470     <tr>
471 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 <td>1</td> <td>general#university#research#informal education</td>
472 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </tr>
473     </tbody>
474     </table>
475     </p>
476     <p>
477     This table can be easily updated from the same endpoint (or an analogue
478     one) using the following ADQL query:
479     <pre>
480     SELECT
481     count(*) as cnt, content_level
482     FROM
483     rr.resource
484     WHERE
485     res_type != 'vstd:servicestandard' and
486     res_type != 'vg:authority' and
487     res_type != 'vstd:standard' and
488 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 res_type != 'va:application' and
489 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 res_type != 'vr:organization'
490     GROUP BY content_level
491     ORDER BY cnt DESC
492     </pre>
493     The table shows that only about 1% of the ContentLevel values use
494     something different and more complex than <i>research</i>, when
495 marco.merot@gmail.com 2408 the element is not empty. Morever, of this 1% (165 resources),
496     61 include the <i>general</i> value (roughly 37% of them),
497     29 (17%) state that are devoted to some <i>education</i> level only,
498     while 148 (90%) state that are also devoted to some <i>education</i> level (up to <i>university</i>).
499 marco.merot@gmail.com 2311 </p>
500     </div> <!-- end clcurrval-->
501     </div> <!-- end appendices -->
502 volute@g-vo.org 2302
503     <div class="section-nonum">
504 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h2><a id="references"/><span class="secnum"/>References</h2>
505    
506     <?bibliography ivoadoc/refs?>
507    
508     </div> <!-- section references -->
509    
510 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <hr/>
511     </body>
512     </html>

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