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9 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <title>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory</title>
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11     <meta name="author" content="Marco Molinaro" />
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33 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h1>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory<br/>
34 volute@g-vo.org 2302 Version <span class="docversion">0.1</span></h1>
35     <h2 class="subtitle">Filled in automatically</h2>
36     <dl>
37     <dt>Working Group</dt>
38 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd><a href="http://wiki.ivoa.net/twiki/bin/view/IVOA/WebHome">Edu IG</a></dd>
39 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>This version:</b></dt>
40     <dd><a href="" class="currentlink">filled in automatically</a></dd>
41     <dt><b>Latest version:</b></dt>
42     <dd> not issued outside
43 volute@g-vo.org 2304 EDU-IG</dd>
44 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>Previous version(s):</b></dt>
45 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd> None</dd>
46 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <dt><b>Author(s):</b></dt>
47 volute@g-vo.org 2303 <dd>Marco Molinaro<br/>
48     Markus Demleitner<br/>
49     Massimo Ramella</dd>
50 volute@g-vo.org 2302 </dl>
52     <h2>Abstract</h2>
53 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
54     The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain the needs
55     rising from first attempts in deploying astrophysical resources
56     dedicated to educational purposes inside standard VO resources.
57     Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
58     possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
59     standards.
60     </p>
61     <p>
62     In detail, here is discussed: the curation of educational resources
63     inside or along with standard registration; the reasons for documents,
64     tutorials and similar to be registered and searched through registries
65     alongside with the means of reaching this goal; an idea for resource
66     language internationalization.
67     </p>
68     <p>
69     VO resources as useful material for astronomy and astrophysics
70     education and dissemination has been proved by various international
71     projects and direct request for educational data publishing has arised
72     from networks of educational telescopes.
73     </p>
75 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
76     <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>
77 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>This is an IVOA Note generated by discussion between Education IG and Registry WG members mainly.</p>
78     <p> <em>A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/"><i>current
79 volute@g-vo.org 2302 IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em > can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>
80 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <h2 class="prologue-heading-western">Acknowledgements</h2>
81 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <p>blah</p>
82     </div>
83     <h2>Contents</h2>
84     <div>
85     <?toc ?>
86     </div>
87 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307
88 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="body">
89 volute@g-vo.org 2304
90 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="section">
91     <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>
92 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
93     Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
94     opportunities for teachers to bring observational astronomy into their
95     classrooms. In fact, there is a growing availability of remotely controlled
96     telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
97     Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
98     to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
99     (http://www.ncra.tifr.res.in/rpl). In some cases, educational telescopes are
100     linked into a network with the aim of guaranteeing the best observing conditions,
101     including deep sky observations during regular daytime school hours, and
102     the best instrument for the particular program of interest. Examples
103     of these networks are iTelescope.net (http://www.itelescope.net) and EuHOU-MW
104     (http://euhou.obspm.fr/public).
105     </p>
106     <p>
107     As telescopes enter classrooms more frequently, interest is growing for a
108     public archive of observations and hence for publishing and curation tools,
109     together with the basic applications needed to retrieve, display
110     and analyze data. The VO already includes most of the technology needed
111     to satisfy the requests of educational observatories. In fact, since several
112     years, VO, and in particular the European project EuroVO, is devoting part
113     of its resources to education (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5). It is
114     therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
115     educational data in VO archives.
116     </p>
117     <p>
118     Alongside with these data collections and service based resources an important
119     role is played also by tutorials and use cases adopted in astrophysics dissemination.
120     Documented step-by-step tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical
121     research performed using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats
122     and have been translated in different lancguages. Providing a way to preserve them
123     and make them easily searchable will be an added value to teachers and researchers
124     involved in education and dissemination, both for astrophysics and the VO.
125     </p>
126     <p>
127     Resource registration for both data services and documents gives a nice answer to
128     the scenario here above described (while efforts for data archiving will rely upon
129     interested data centers), but, while technically this seems not a great problem,
130     from the point of view of keeping clean the resources devoted to education will
131     require some more effort.
132     </p>
133     <p>
134     Next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
135     <a href="#regext">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
136     registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
137     internationalization of resources will be discussed.
138     </p>
139 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- section Introduction -->
141 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <div class="section">
142 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
143 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <p>
144     From a technical point of view there is no need to add new elements or extensions
145     to the existing standard for VO Resources (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>) and extensions
146     to let astrophysical resources devoted to educational, outreach or amateur targets.
147     The only real need for investigating changes in what already exists is due to a
148     use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
149     versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
150     </p>
151     <p>
152     For the sake of simplicity here we will distinguish these two groups of resources as
153     <i>educational</i> and <i>professional</i> but without any intent of putting them
154     on different levels of importance.
155     </p>
156 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <div class="section">
157 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <h3><a id="eduvspro">Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></h3>
158     <p>
159     On one side, teachers and educators may find it difficult to filter out
160     from all VO resources the ones that are suitable for their tutorials and
161     examples. On the other side, researchers may find annoying having,
162     possibly non-trusted, resources in the output of their search. Again,
163     we stress it is not a matter of the quality of the data deployed, but
164     only a distinction made upon the resources' scope. Moreover, the same
165     resource may be useful for both the goals, but this leads to the same
166     point of discussion: how to properly tag resources?
167     </p>
168     <p>
169     In the next subsection a possible tagging solution, based upon the existing
170     <i>ContentLevel</i> element of VOResource, but requiring a small change
171     to it is presented. The subsequent subsection describes the idea of a
172     curated registry for educational resources and the reasons for it to exist.
173     </p>
174     </div> <!-- subsection eduvspro -->
176     <div class="section">
177     <h3><a id="contentlvl">ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
178     <p>
179     In <cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite> already exists the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
180     allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
181     suitable for one or more of the following audiences:
182     <ul>
183     <li>General</li>
184     <li>Elementary Education</li>
185     <li>Middle School Education</li>
186     <li>Secondary Education</li>
187     <li>Community College</li>
188     <li>University</li>
189     <li>Research</li>
190     <li>Amateur</li>
191     <li>Informal Education</li>
192     </ul>
193     This element turns out to be misused by resource publisher probably because
194     it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
195     possibilities are. Probably, simplifying the view on this element, e.g.
196     restricting to only three:
197     <ul>
198     <li>General</li>
199     <li>Research</li>
200     <li>Amateur</li>
201     </ul>
202     possible values may lead to both a better description of their resources
203     by data providers and a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
204     differently targeted resources at client level.
205     </p>
206     <p>
207     This change in the already existing standard will require small or no
208     changes on the already registered resources (MM provide a couple of
209     figures to justify this!) and thus will not disrupt what exists or
210     trouble VO publishers.
211     </p>
212     </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
214     <div class="section">
215     <h3><a id="edureg">Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
216     <p>
217     Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
218     a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
219     educators to easily access the wanted data and services. A good example
220     for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas, that has a
221     built in curated set of resources suitable for educational level
222     tutorials.
223     </p>
224     <p>
225     Curation will require some effort in managing and keeping up to date
226     such a registry but, most important, has some restrictions coming from
227     the IVOA resource registry architecture.
228     </p>
229     <p>
230     If such a registry were a standard local registry (<cite>std:RI1</cite>)
231     its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
232     that any educational dedicated resource will go up to the full VO
233     set of resources, which is what we don't want to happen to keep the
234     <i>professional</i> side to be robust.
235     </p>
236     <p>
237     If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
238     resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
239     scope the registry has to be preservde for.
240     </p>
241     <p>
242     What is needed is a resource (the curated registry) capable of :
243     <ul>
244     <li><i>manually</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
245     (e.g. from a full registry);</li>
246     <li>register its own educational resources without being directly
247     harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
248     sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
249     resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li>
250     </ul>
251     </p>
252     <p>
253     The drawing in Fig. 1 exemplifies the above descripted
254     scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
255     while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
256     be curated.
257     <img src="curation.png"></img>
258     </p>
259     </div> <!-- subsection edureg -->
261 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- section curreg -->
263     <div class="section">
264     <h2><a id="regext">Registering Texts</a></h2>
265     <p>Educational material is not only about services -- text-like material
266     like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
267     least as important. Within the VO community, there is a large body of
268     such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
269     researchers (TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO works).</p>
271     <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
272     projects on plain web pages. It was, in consequence, hard to find it.
273     Also, locating editable forms of such texts -- which has been found to
274     be necessary fairly regularly -- has been at least difficult; while
275     representing source-product relationships is in principle in the domain
276     of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry, in the case of
277     texts the relation is so simple and its representation so useful that we
278     propose to include it in a simple registry extension covering text-like
279     material, dubbed DocRegExt in the following.</p>
281     <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
282     course are also text-like (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>). This extension,
283     however, focuses on metadata important for standards -- e.g.,
284     vocabularies and status -- that is not pertinent for educational
285     material. Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
286     can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
287     the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
288     important.</p>
290     <div class="section">
291     <h3><a id="regext-usecases">Use Cases</a></h3>
293     <p>The design of DocRegExt has been guided by the desire to fulfill the
294     following use cases:</p>
296     <ul>
297     <li>Is there a tutorial covering discovering intermediate mass black
298     holes? (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
299     <li>Is there a tutorial covering working with X-Ray data? (Standard
300     VOResource is sufficient)</li>
301     <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use?
302     (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li>
303     <li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use in
304     Italian? (That requires the declaration of the document language)</li>
305     <li>What are the subjects of maintained (in the sense of: probably
306     working in the VO as found by the students) tutorials?
307     (The active flag of standard VOResource is
308     unsuitable here since even outdated resources will still be accessible;
309     therefore, we introduce the maintained flag)</li>
310     <li>Are there tutorials using redshifts? (This is solved by allowing
311     table metadata in DocRegExt)</li>
312     <li>Where can I find an editable version of tutorial ivo://auth/tut1?
313     (This is solved by allowing multiple access URLs with different content
314     types, which should be sufficient to allow answering the question)</li>
315     <li>Are there translations of tutorial ivo://auth/tut2? (This is covered
316     by the recommendations on declaring relationships between text-like
317     resources)</li>
318     <li>Is there material using service ivo://auth/svc1? (Again, declaring
319     relationships covers this use case)</li>
320     <li>Is there material about something visible tonight? (In principle,
321     allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow
322     answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
323     information in useable form)</li>
324     </ul>
325     </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
327     </div> <!-- section regext -->
329 marco.merot@gmail.com 2307 <div class="section">
330     <h2><a id="lang">Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
331     <p>
332     The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
333     in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
334     educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
335     audience not skilled enough with the english language. It would be an added
336     value in this case to be able to register an educational or
337     documental resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
338     standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
339     </p>
340     <p>
341     Here what it would be nice to discuss is whether this means:
342     <ul>
343     <li>changing VOResource to allow different languages in resource
344     descriptions;</li>
345     <li>enable internazionalization in VO resources within existing
346     resources: one resource described in multiple languages</li>
347     <li>other...</li>
348     </ul>
349     </p>
350     </div> <!-- section lang -->
352 volute@g-vo.org 2304 </div> <!-- body -->
354     <div class="appendices">
355     <div class="section">
356     <h1>An appendix</h1>
357 volute@g-vo.org 2302 </div>
358     </div>
360     <div class="section-nonum">
361 volute@g-vo.org 2304 <h2><a id="references"/><span class="secnum"/>References</h2>
363     <?bibliography ivoadoc/refs?>
365     </div> <!-- section references -->
367 volute@g-vo.org 2302 <hr/>
368     </body>
369     </html>

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