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6 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"><title>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory IVOA Note 9 September 2013</title><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/><meta name="Title" content="Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory"/><meta name="author" content="Marco Molinaro"/><meta name="maintainedBy" content="Marco Molinaro"/><link href="http://www.ivoa.net/misc/ivoa_a.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/><style type="text/css" xml:space="preserve">
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31 <h1>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory<br clear="none"/>
32 Version <span class="docversion">1.0</span></h1>
33 <h2 class="subtitle">IVOA Note 9 September 2013</h2>
34 <dl><dt>Working Group</dt><dd><a href="http://wiki.ivoa.net/twiki/bin/view/IVOA/WebHome" shape="rect">Edu IG</a></dd><dt><b>This version:</b></dt><dd><a class="currentlink" href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/edumatters-20130909">http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/edumatters-20130909</a></dd><dt><b>Latest version:</b></dt><dd> not issued outside
35 EDU-IG</dd><dt><b>Previous version(s):</b></dt><dd> None</dd><dt><b>Author(s):</b></dt><dd>Marco Molinaro<br clear="none"/>
36 Markus Demleitner<br clear="none"/>
37 Massimo Ramella</dd></dl>
39 <h2>Abstract</h2>
40 <p>
41 The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain practices followed
42 and requirements found while creating and
43 deploying astrophysical resources
44 dedicated to educational purposes within the standard VO framework.
45 Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
46 possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
47 standards.
48 </p>
50 <p>In detail, we discuss: the curation of educational resources inside or
51 along with standard registries; use cases and techniques for registering
52 and locating documents, tutorials and similar within the registries;
53 dealing with multiple languages.</p>
55 <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
56 <p id="statusdecl"><em>
57 This is an IVOA Note expressing suggestions from and
58 opinions of the authors. It is intended to share best
59 practices, possible approaches, or other perspectives on
60 interoperability with the Virtual Observatory. It should
61 not be referenced or otherwise interpreted as a standard
62 specification.
63 </em></p>
64 <p>This is an IVOA Note generated by discussion between Education IG and Registry WG members mainly.</p>
65 <p> <em>A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/" shape="rect"><i>current
66 IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em> can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>
67 <h2 class="prologue-heading-western">Acknowledgements</h2>
68 <p>blah</p>
69 </div>
70 <h2>Contents</h2>
71 <div><!--The contents of this div are automatically generated from the following processing instruction when processed with ivoarestructure.xsl-->
72 <?toc?><div id="toc" class="toc"><ul><li><a href="#Introduction"><span class="secnum">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li><a href="#curreg"><span class="secnum">2. </span>A Curated Registry for Education</a><ul><li><a href="#eduvspro"><span class="secnum">2.1. </span>Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></li><li><a href="#contentlvl"><span class="secnum">2.2. </span>ContentLevel granularity issue</a></li><li><a href="#edureg"><span class="secnum">2.3. </span>Curating the Edu Registry</a></li></ul></li><li><a href="#regext"><span class="secnum">3. </span>Registering Texts</a><ul><li><a href="#regext-usecases"><span class="secnum">3.1. </span>Use Cases</a></li></ul></li><li><a href="#lang"><span class="secnum">4. </span>Internationalization of VO Resources</a></li><li><a href="#clcurrval"><span class="secnum">A. </span>ContentLevel values summary</a></li><li><a href="#references"><span class="secnum"/>References</a></li></ul></div>
73 <!--end of autogenerated content--></div>
75 <div class="body">
77 <div class="section"><h2><a id="Introduction" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">1. </span>Introduction</a></h2>
78 <p>
79 Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
80 opportunities for teachers to bring astronomy into their
81 classrooms. As the VO makes science-grade data publicly available and
82 classroom sets of (suitably) networked PCs are now standard in schools,
83 exciting projects come within reach of common schools. To realize the
84 possiblities, it is important to disseminate material to help teachers
85 tap into these resources. These include documented step-by-step
86 tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical research performed
87 using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats and
88 have been translated in different languages.
89 </p>
91 <p>But new opportunities also come on the observational side.
92 There is a growing availability of remotely controlled
93 telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
94 Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
95 to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
96 (http://www.ncra.tifr.res.in/rpl). In some cases, educational telescopes are
97 linked into a network with the aim of guaranteeing the best observing conditions,
98 including deep sky observations during regular daytime school hours, and
99 the best instrument for the particular program of interest. Examples
100 of these networks are iTelescope.net (http://www.itelescope.net) and EuHOU-MW
101 (http://euhou.obspm.fr/public).
102 </p>
103 <p>
104 As telescopes enter classrooms more frequently, interest is growing for a
105 public archive of observations and hence for publishing and curation tools,
106 together with the basic applications needed to retrieve, display
107 and analyze data. The VO already includes most of the technology needed
108 to satisfy the requests of educational observatories. In fact, since several
109 years, VO, and in particular the European project EuroVO, is devoting part
110 of its resources to education (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5). It is
111 therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
112 educational data in VO archives.
113 </p>
115 <p>Resource registration for both data services and documents is the
116 obvious answer to the questions raised by this scenario. While
117 technically this seems not a great problem, keeping too technical
118 research services out of the the resources devoted to education will
119 require some effort, as will avoiding a contamination of the "research
120 VO" with obviously inadequate material.</p>
122 <p>The next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
123 <a href="#regext" shape="rect">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
124 registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
125 internationalization of resources will be discussed.
126 </p>
127 </div> <!-- section Introduction -->
129 <div class="section"><h2><a id="curreg" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2. </span>A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
130 <p>
131 From a technical point of view the registration of educational services
132 does not require extensions
133 to the existing for VOResource standard (<cite>[<a href="#std:VOR">std:VOR</a>]</cite>).
134 The only real need for investigating changes to what already exists is due to a
135 use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
136 versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
137 </p>
138 <p>
139 For the sake of simplicity here we will distinguish these two groups of resources as
140 <i>educational</i> and <i>professional</i> but without any intent of putting them
141 on different levels of importance.
142 </p>
143 <div class="section"><h3><a id="eduvspro" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.1. </span>Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></h3>
144 <p>
145 On one side, teachers and educators may find it difficult to filter out
146 from all VO resources the ones that are suitable for their tutorials and
147 examples. On the other side, researchers may find annoying having,
148 possibly non-trusted, resources in the output of their search. Again,
149 we stress it is not a matter of the quality of the data deployed, but
150 only a distinction made upon the resources' scope. Moreover, the same
151 resource may be useful for both the goals, but this leads to the same
152 point of discussion: how to properly tag resources?
153 </p>
154 <p>
155 In the next subsection a possible tagging solution, based upon the existing
156 <i>ContentLevel</i> element of VOResource, but requiring a small change
157 to, it is presented. The subsequent subsection describes the idea of a
158 curated registry for educational resources and the reasons for it to exist.
159 </p>
160 </div> <!-- subsection eduvspro -->
162 <div class="section"><h3><a id="contentlvl" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.2. </span>ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
163 <p>
164 <cite>[<a href="#std:VOR">std:VOR</a>]</cite> already has the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
165 allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
166 suitable for one or more of the following audiences:</p>
167 <ul><li>General</li><li>Elementary Education</li><li>Middle School Education</li><li>Secondary Education</li><li>Community College</li><li>University</li><li>Research</li><li>Amateur</li><li>Informal Education</li></ul>
168 <p>This element turns out to be misused by many publishers, presumably because
169 it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
170 possibilities are; also, requiring a fairly substantial enumeration to
171 convey "for school use" seems, in retrospect, not likely to promote
172 widespread adoption. We hence propose to simplify the content model
173 to:</p>
174 <ul><li>General</li><li>Research</li><li>Amateur</li></ul>
175 <p>We expect this to make publishers to, on average, better describe
176 their resources while still providing
177 a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
178 differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to
179 add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even
180 substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.
181 </p>
182 <p>
183 This change in the already existing standard will require only
184 a small effort to update already registered resources because nearly 97% of
185 them currently have ContentLevel set to <i>research</i>, about 2% of them have
186 no ContentLevel defined at all and only the remaining (about 1%) have a different value
187 (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these
188 figures).
189 </p>
190 <p>Until the change in VOResource can be effected, the proposed
191 change can work as a "best practice" recommendation, possibly even on
192 registry level, where registries can map University to Research and
193 everything else except Amateur to General.</p>
194 </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
196 <div class="section"><h3><a id="edureg" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.3. </span>Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
197 <p>
198 Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
199 a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
200 educators let their students work with a registry without having to
201 worry about confusing material or overwhelming data sizes. A good example
202 for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas that has a
203 built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level
204 tutorials.
205 </p>
206 <p>
207 Curation will require some effort in managing and keeping up to date
208 such a registry but, most important, has some restrictions coming from
209 the IVOA resource registry architecture.
210 </p>
211 <p>
212 If such a registry were a standard publishing registry
213 (<cite>[<a href="#std:RI1">std:RI1</a>]</cite>),
214 its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
215 that any dedicated educational resource would end up in the full VO
216 set of resources. For reasons mentioned above, this does not seem
217 desirable.</p>
218 <p>
219 If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
220 resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
221 scope the registry has to be preservde for.
222 </p>
223 <p>
224 What is needed is a resource (the curated, in <cite>[<a href="#std:RI1">std:RI1</a>]</cite>
225 parlance, local, registry) capable of :
226 <ul><li><i>selectively</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
227 (e.g. from a full registry);</li><li>register its own educational resources without being directly
228 harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
229 sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
230 resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li></ul>
231 </p>
232 <p>
233 In Fig. 1 wie illustrate this <span class="edit">(XXX NO FIGURE IN
235 scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
236 while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
237 be curated.
238 <img src="curation.png"/>
239 </p>
240 </div> <!-- subsection edureg -->
242 </div> <!-- section curreg -->
244 <div class="section"><h2><a id="regext" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">3. </span>Registering Texts</a></h2>
245 <p>Educational material is not only about services -- text-like material
246 like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
247 least as important. Within the VO community, there is a large body of
248 such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
249 researchers <span class="edit">(TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO
250 works).</span></p>
252 <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
253 projects on plain web pages. It was, in consequence, hard to find, with
254 knowledge of it often passed on antecdotically. To remedy this, we
255 propose to keep record of such material in the registry.</p>
257 <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
258 course are also text-like (<cite>[<a href="#std:STDREGEXT">std:STDREGEXT</a>]</cite>). This extension,
259 however, focuses on metadata important for standards -- e.g.,
260 vocabularies and status -- that is not pertinent for educational
261 material. Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
262 can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
263 the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
264 important. We therefore propose a simple registry extension covering
265 text-like material, dubbed DocRegExt. In the following, we collect
266 use cases for that extension.</p>
269 <div class="section"><h3><a id="regext-usecases" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">3.1. </span>Use Cases</a></h3>
271 <p>The design of DocRegExt has been guided by the desire to fulfill the
272 following use cases:</p>
274 <ul><li>Is there a tutorial covering discovering intermediate mass black
275 holes? (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li><li>Is there a tutorial covering working with X-Ray data? (Standard
276 VOResource is sufficient)</li><li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use?
277 (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li><li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use in
278 Italian? (That requires the declaration of the document language)</li><li>What are the subjects of maintained (in the sense of: probably
279 working in the VO as found by the students) tutorials?
280 (The active flag of standard VOResource is
281 unsuitable here since even outdated resources will still be accessible;
282 therefore, we introduce the maintained flag)</li><li>Are there tutorials using redshifts? (This is solved by allowing
283 table metadata in DocRegExt)</li><li>Where can I find an editable version of tutorial ivo://auth/tut1?
284 (This is solved by allowing multiple access URLs with different content
285 types, which should be sufficient to allow answering the question)</li><li>Are there translations of tutorial ivo://auth/tut2? (This is covered
286 by the recommendations on declaring relationships between text-like
287 resources)</li><li>Is there material using service ivo://auth/svc1? (Again, declaring
288 relationships covers this use case)</li><li>Is there material about something visible tonight? (In principle,
289 allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow
290 answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
291 information in useable form)</li><li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror"). Is it
292 the latest version? If not, where can I find an update? (Unless the
293 title of the text changed, standard VOResource should suffice)</li></ul>
294 </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
296 <p>On the use cases of locating editable forms of such texts -- which
297 has been found to be necessary fairly regularly -- we note in passing
298 that representing source-product relationships is in principle in the
299 domain of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry. However, in
300 the case discussed here the relation is so simple and its representation
301 so useful that we propose to include it in a DocRegExt.</p>
303 <p class="edit">Actually write the extension</p>
305 </div> <!-- section regext -->
307 <div class="section"><h2><a id="lang" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">4. </span>Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
308 <p>
309 The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
310 in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
311 educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
312 audience not skilled enough with the English language. It would be an added
313 value in this case to be able to register an educational or
314 document resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
315 standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
316 </p>
317 <p>
318 Here what it would be nice to discuss is whether this means:
319 <ul><li>changing VOResource to allow different languages in resource
320 descriptions;</li><li>enable internazionalization in VO resources within existing
321 resources: one resource described in multiple languages</li><li>other...</li></ul>
322 </p>
323 </div> <!-- section lang -->
325 </div> <!-- body -->
327 <div class="appendices">
328 <div class="section"><h2><a id="clcurrval" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">A. </span>ContentLevel values summary</a></h2>
329 <p>
330 This appendix reports some statistics on the usage of the ContentLevel
331 element in <cite>[<a href="#std:VOR">std:VOR</a>]</cite> as of 2014-01-30, taken from the
332 GAVO RegTAP endpoint http://dc.g-vo.org/tap .
333 There are 14392 useful resources (excluding authorities, standards and
334 similar) that expose 26 different values as their ContentLevel.
335 In the following table these values are reported in order of count.
336 </p>
337 <p>
338 <table class="plain"><thead><tr><th rowspan="1" colspan="1">count</th><th rowspan="1" colspan="1">content_level string</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">13937</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">290</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">41</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">40</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#university#research#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">24</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">14</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#research#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">7</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">5</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#general</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">4</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">3</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">3</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#university#community college</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">3</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">elementary education#middle school education#secondary education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">3</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#university#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">2</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#university</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">2</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#amateur#university#community college</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">2</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">2</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#community college#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#university#research#amateur#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#secondary education#university#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#research#general#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#university#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#research#amateur#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#university#research#informal education</td></tr></tbody></table>
339 </p>
340 <p>
341 This table can be easily updated from the same endpoint (or an analogue
342 one) using the following ADQL query:
343 <pre xml:space="preserve">
345 count(*) as cnt, content_level
346 FROM
347 rr.resource
349 res_type != 'vstd:servicestandard' and
350 res_type != 'vg:authority' and
351 res_type != 'vstd:standard' and
352 res_type != 'va:application' and
353 res_type != 'vr:organization'
354 GROUP BY content_level
356 </pre>
357 The table shows that only about 1% of the ContentLevel values use
358 something different and more complex than <i>research</i>, when
359 the element is not empty. Morever, of this 1% (165 resources),
360 61 include the <i>general</i> value (roughly 37% of them),
361 29 (17%) state that are devoted to some <i>education</i> level only,
362 while 148 (90%) state that are also devoted to some <i>education</i> level (up to <i>university</i>).
363 </p>
364 </div> <!-- end clcurrval-->
365 </div> <!-- end appendices -->
367 <div class="section-nonum"><h2><a id="references" shape="rect"><span class="secnum"/>References</a></h2>
369 <?bibliography ivoadoc/refs?><dl>
371 <dt><a name="std:RI1">[std:RI1] Kevin Benson, Ray Plante, Elizabeth Auden,
372 Matthew Graham, Gretchen Greene, Martin Hill, Tony Linde, Dave Morris, Wil
373 O'Mullane, Guy Rixon, Aurélien Stébé, and Kona Andrews, Kevin Benson and
374 Ray Plante, editors.</a></dt> <dd>
375 <a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/RegistryInterface/">IVOA registry
376 interfaces version 1.0</a>.
377 IVOA Recommendation, 2009.
378 </dd>
380 <dt><a name="std:STDREGEXT">[std:STDREGEXT] Paul Harrison, Douglas Burke, Ray
381 Plante, Guy Rixon, and Dave Morris.</a></dt> <dd>
382 <a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/StandardsRegExt/20120508/REC-StandardsRegExt-1.0-20120508.html">StandardsRegExt: a VOResource schema extension for describing IVOA
383 standards, version 1.0</a>.
384 IVOA Recommendation, May 2012.
385 </dd>
387 <dt><a name="std:VOR">[std:VOR] Raymond Plante, Kevin Benson, Matthew Graham,
388 Gretchen Greene, Paul Harrison, Gerard Lemson, Tony Linde, Guy Rixon, and
389 Aurélien Stébé.</a></dt> <dd>
390 <a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/REC/ReR/VOResource-20080222.html">VOResource: an XML encoding schema for resource metadata version
391 1.03</a>.
392 IVOA Recommendation, February 2008.
393 </dd>
395 </dl>
397 </div> <!-- section references -->
399 <hr/>
400 </body></html>


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