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26 <p style="position: absolute; left: 0px; top: 75pt;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">A</span> lliance</p>
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28 </div>
29 <h1>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory<br clear="none"/>
30 Version <span class="docversion">1.0</span></h1>
31 <h2 class="subtitle">IVOA Note 9 September 2013</h2>
32 <dl><dt>Working Group</dt><dd><a href="http://wiki.ivoa.net/twiki/bin/view/IVOA/WebHome" shape="rect">Edu IG</a></dd><dt><b>This version:</b></dt><dd><a class="currentlink" href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/edumatters-20130909">http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/edumatters-20130909</a></dd><dt><b>Latest version:</b></dt><dd> not issued outside
33 EDU-IG</dd><dt><b>Previous version(s):</b></dt><dd> None</dd><dt><b>Author(s):</b></dt><dd>Marco Molinaro<br clear="none"/>
34 Markus Demleitner<br clear="none"/>
35 Massimo Ramella</dd></dl>
36
37 <h2>Abstract</h2>
38 <p>
39 The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain the needs
40 rising from first attempts in deploying astrophysical resources
41 dedicated to educational purposes inside standard VO resources.
42 Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
43 possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
44 standards.
45 </p>
46 <p>
47 In detail, here is discussed: the curation of educational resources
48 inside or along with standard registration; the reasons for documents,
49 tutorials and similar to be registered and searched through registries
50 alongside with the means of reaching this goal; an idea for resource
51 language internationalization.
52 </p>
53 <p>
54 VO resources as useful material for astronomy and astrophysics
55 education and dissemination has been proved by various international
56 projects and direct request for educational data publishing has arised
57 from networks of educational telescopes.
58 </p>
59
60 <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
61 <p id="statusdecl"><em>
62 This is an IVOA Note expressing suggestions from and
63 opinions of the authors. It is intended to share best
64 practices, possible approaches, or other perspectives on
65 interoperability with the Virtual Observatory. It should
66 not be referenced or otherwise interpreted as a standard
67 specification.
68 </em></p>
69 <p>This is an IVOA Note generated by discussion between Education IG and Registry WG members mainly.</p>
70 <p> <em>A list of </em><span style="background: transparent"><a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/" shape="rect"><i>current
71 IVOA Recommendations and other technical documents</i></a></span><em> can be found at http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/.</em></p>
72 <h2 class="prologue-heading-western">Acknowledgements</h2>
73 <p>blah</p>
74 </div>
75 <h2>Contents</h2>
76 <div><!--The contents of this div are automatically generated from the following processing instruction when processed with ivoarestructure.xsl-->
77 <?toc?><div id="toc" class="toc"><ul><li><a href="#Introduction"><span class="secnum">1. </span>Introduction</a></li><li><a href="#curreg"><span class="secnum">2. </span>A Curated Registry for Education</a><ul><li><a href="#eduvspro"><span class="secnum">2.1. </span>Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></li><li><a href="#contentlvl"><span class="secnum">2.2. </span>ContentLevel granularity issue</a></li><li><a href="#edureg"><span class="secnum">2.3. </span>Curating the Edu Registry</a></li></ul></li><li><a href="#regext"><span class="secnum">3. </span>Registering Texts</a><ul><li><a href="#regext-usecases"><span class="secnum">3.1. </span>Use Cases</a></li></ul></li><li><a href="#lang"><span class="secnum">4. </span>Internationalization of VO Resources</a></li><li><a href="#clcurrval"><span class="secnum">A. </span>ContentLevel values summary</a></li><li><a href="#references"><span class="secnum"/>References</a></li></ul></div>
78 <!--end of autogenerated content--></div>
79
80 <div class="body">
81
82 <div class="section"><h2><a id="Introduction" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">1. </span>Introduction</a></h2>
83 <p>
84 Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
85 opportunities for teachers to bring observational astronomy into their
86 classrooms. In fact, there is a growing availability of remotely controlled
87 telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
88 Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
89 to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
90 (http://www.ncra.tifr.res.in/rpl). In some cases, educational telescopes are
91 linked into a network with the aim of guaranteeing the best observing conditions,
92 including deep sky observations during regular daytime school hours, and
93 the best instrument for the particular program of interest. Examples
94 of these networks are iTelescope.net (http://www.itelescope.net) and EuHOU-MW
95 (http://euhou.obspm.fr/public).
96 </p>
97 <p>
98 As telescopes enter classrooms more frequently, interest is growing for a
99 public archive of observations and hence for publishing and curation tools,
100 together with the basic applications needed to retrieve, display
101 and analyze data. The VO already includes most of the technology needed
102 to satisfy the requests of educational observatories. In fact, since several
103 years, VO, and in particular the European project EuroVO, is devoting part
104 of its resources to education (http://wwwas.oats.inaf.it/aidawp5). It is
105 therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
106 educational data in VO archives.
107 </p>
108 <p>
109 Alongside with these data collections and service based resources an important
110 role is played also by tutorials and use cases adopted in astrophysics dissemination.
111 Documented step-by-step tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical
112 research performed using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats
113 and have been translated in different lancguages. Providing a way to preserve them
114 and make them easily searchable will be an added value to teachers and researchers
115 involved in education and dissemination, both for astrophysics and the VO.
116 </p>
117 <p>
118 Resource registration for both data services and documents gives a nice answer to
119 the scenario here above described (while efforts for data archiving will rely upon
120 interested data centers), but, while technically this seems not a great problem,
121 from the point of view of keeping clean the resources devoted to education will
122 require some more effort.
123 </p>
124 <p>
125 Next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
126 <a href="#regext" shape="rect">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
127 registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
128 internationalization of resources will be discussed.
129 </p>
130 </div> <!-- section Introduction -->
131
132 <div class="section"><h2><a id="curreg" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2. </span>A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
133 <p>
134 From a technical point of view there is no need to add new elements or extensions
135 to the existing standard for VO Resources (<cite>[<a href="#std:STDREGEXT">std:STDREGEXT</a>]</cite>) and extensions
136 to let astrophysical resources devoted to educational, outreach or amateur targets.
137 The only real need for investigating changes in what already exists is due to a
138 use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
139 versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
140 </p>
141 <p>
142 For the sake of simplicity here we will distinguish these two groups of resources as
143 <i>educational</i> and <i>professional</i> but without any intent of putting them
144 on different levels of importance.
145 </p>
146 <div class="section"><h3><a id="eduvspro" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.1. </span>Educational vs. Professional Resources</a></h3>
147 <p>
148 On one side, teachers and educators may find it difficult to filter out
149 from all VO resources the ones that are suitable for their tutorials and
150 examples. On the other side, researchers may find annoying having,
151 possibly non-trusted, resources in the output of their search. Again,
152 we stress it is not a matter of the quality of the data deployed, but
153 only a distinction made upon the resources' scope. Moreover, the same
154 resource may be useful for both the goals, but this leads to the same
155 point of discussion: how to properly tag resources?
156 </p>
157 <p>
158 In the next subsection a possible tagging solution, based upon the existing
159 <i>ContentLevel</i> element of VOResource, but requiring a small change
160 to, it is presented. The subsequent subsection describes the idea of a
161 curated registry for educational resources and the reasons for it to exist.
162 </p>
163 </div> <!-- subsection eduvspro -->
164
165 <div class="section"><h3><a id="contentlvl" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.2. </span>ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
166 <p>
167 In <cite>[<a href="#std:STDREGEXT">std:STDREGEXT</a>]</cite> already exists the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
168 allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
169 suitable for one or more of the following audiences:
170 <ul><li>General</li><li>Elementary Education</li><li>Middle School Education</li><li>Secondary Education</li><li>Community College</li><li>University</li><li>Research</li><li>Amateur</li><li>Informal Education</li></ul>
171 This element turns out to be misused by resource publisher probably because
172 it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
173 possibilities are. Probably, simplifying the view on this element, e.g.
174 restricting to only three:
175 <ul><li>General</li><li>Research</li><li>Amateur</li></ul>
176 possible values may lead to both a better description of their resources
177 by data providers and a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
178 differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to
179 add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even
180 substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.
181 </p>
182 <p>
183 This change in the already existing standard will require only
184 a small effort to update already registered resources because nearly 97% of
185 them currently have ContentLevel set to <i>research</i>, about 2% of them have
186 no ContentLevel defined at all and only the remaining (about 1%) have a different value
187 (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these
188 figures).
189 </p>
190 </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
191
192 <div class="section"><h3><a id="edureg" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.3. </span>Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
193 <p>
194 Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
195 a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
196 educators to easily access the wanted data and services. A good example
197 for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas, that has a
198 built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level
199 tutorials.
200 </p>
201 <p>
202 Curation will require some effort in managing and keeping up to date
203 such a registry but, most important, has some restrictions coming from
204 the IVOA resource registry architecture.
205 </p>
206 <p>
207 If such a registry were a standard local registry (<cite>[<a href="#std:RI1">std:RI1</a>]</cite>)
208 its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
209 that any educational dedicated resource will go into the full VO
210 set of resources, which is what we don't want to happen to keep the
211 <i>professional</i> side robust.
212 </p>
213 <p>
214 If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
215 resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
216 scope the registry has to be preservde for.
217 </p>
218 <p>
219 What is needed is a resource (the curated registry) capable of :
220 <ul><li><i>manually</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
221 (e.g. from a full registry);</li><li>register its own educational resources without being directly
222 harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
223 sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
224 resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li></ul>
225 </p>
226 <p>
227 The drawing in Fig. 1 exemplifies the above descripted
228 scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
229 while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
230 be curated.
231 <img src="curation.png"/>
232 </p>
233 </div> <!-- subsection edureg -->
234
235 </div> <!-- section curreg -->
236
237 <div class="section"><h2><a id="regext" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">3. </span>Registering Texts</a></h2>
238 <p>Educational material is not only about services -- text-like material
239 like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
240 least as important. Within the VO community, there is a large body of
241 such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
242 researchers (TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO works).</p>
243
244 <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
245 projects on plain web pages. It was, in consequence, hard to find it.
246 Also, locating editable forms of such texts -- which has been found to
247 be necessary fairly regularly -- has been at least difficult; while
248 representing source-product relationships is in principle in the domain
249 of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry, in the case of
250 texts the relation is so simple and its representation so useful that we
251 propose to include it in a simple registry extension covering text-like
252 material, dubbed DocRegExt in the following.</p>
253
254 <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
255 course are also text-like (<cite>[<a href="#std:STDREGEXT">std:STDREGEXT</a>]</cite>). This extension,
256 however, focuses on metadata important for standards -- e.g.,
257 vocabularies and status -- that is not pertinent for educational
258 material. Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
259 can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
260 the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
261 important.</p>
262
263 <div class="section"><h3><a id="regext-usecases" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">3.1. </span>Use Cases</a></h3>
264
265 <p>The design of DocRegExt has been guided by the desire to fulfill the
266 following use cases:</p>
267
268 <ul><li>Is there a tutorial covering discovering intermediate mass black
269 holes? (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li><li>Is there a tutorial covering working with X-Ray data? (Standard
270 VOResource is sufficient)</li><li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use?
271 (Standard VOResource is sufficient)</li><li>Is there a tutorial dealing with Planets suitable for school use in
272 Italian? (That requires the declaration of the document language)</li><li>What are the subjects of maintained (in the sense of: probably
273 working in the VO as found by the students) tutorials?
274 (The active flag of standard VOResource is
275 unsuitable here since even outdated resources will still be accessible;
276 therefore, we introduce the maintained flag)</li><li>Are there tutorials using redshifts? (This is solved by allowing
277 table metadata in DocRegExt)</li><li>Where can I find an editable version of tutorial ivo://auth/tut1?
278 (This is solved by allowing multiple access URLs with different content
279 types, which should be sufficient to allow answering the question)</li><li>Are there translations of tutorial ivo://auth/tut2? (This is covered
280 by the recommendations on declaring relationships between text-like
281 resources)</li><li>Is there material using service ivo://auth/svc1? (Again, declaring
282 relationships covers this use case)</li><li>Is there material about something visible tonight? (In principle,
283 allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow
284 answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
285 information in useable form)</li><li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror"). Is it
286 the latest version? If not, where can I find an update?</li></ul>
287 </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
288
289 </div> <!-- section regext -->
290
291 <div class="section"><h2><a id="lang" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">4. </span>Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
292 <p>
293 The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
294 in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
295 educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
296 audience not skilled enough with the english language. It would be an added
297 value in this case to be able to register an educational or
298 documental resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
299 standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
300 </p>
301 <p>
302 Here what it would be nice to discuss is whether this means:
303 <ul><li>changing VOResource to allow different languages in resource
304 descriptions;</li><li>enable internazionalization in VO resources within existing
305 resources: one resource described in multiple languages</li><li>other...</li></ul>
306 </p>
307 </div> <!-- section lang -->
308
309 </div> <!-- body -->
310
311 <div class="appendices">
312 <div class="section"><h2><a id="clcurrval" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">A. </span>ContentLevel values summary</a></h2>
313 <p>
314 This appendix reports some statistics on the usage of the ContentLevel
315 element in <cite>[<a href="#std:VOR">std:VOR</a>]</cite> as of 2014-01-30, taken from the
316 GAVO RegTAP endpoint http://dc.g-vo.org/tap .
317 There are 14392 useful resources (excluding authorities, standards and
318 similar) that expose 26 different values as their ContentLevel.
319 In the following table these values are reported in order of count.
320 </p>
321 <p>
322 <table class="plain"><thead><tr><th rowspan="1" colspan="1">count</th><th rowspan="1" colspan="1">content_level string</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">13937</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">290</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">&nbsp;</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">41</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">40</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#university#research#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">24</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">14</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#research#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">7</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">5</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#general</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">4</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">3</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">3</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#university#community college</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">3</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">elementary education#middle school education#secondary education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">3</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#university#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">2</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#university</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">2</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#amateur#university#community college</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">2</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">2</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#community college#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#university#research#amateur#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#secondary education#university#research</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#research#general#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">research#university#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">elementary education#middle school education#secondary education#community college#university#research#amateur#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">university#research#amateur#informal education</td></tr><tr><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">1</td><td rowspan="1" colspan="1">general#university#research#informal education</td></tr></tbody></table>
323 </p>
324 <p>
325 This table can be easily updated from the same endpoint (or an analogue
326 one) using the following ADQL query:
327 <pre xml:space="preserve">
328 SELECT
329 count(*) as cnt, content_level
330 FROM
331 rr.resource
332 WHERE
333 res_type != 'vstd:servicestandard' and
334 res_type != 'vg:authority' and
335 res_type != 'vstd:standard' and
336 res_type != 'va:application' and
337 res_type != 'vr:organization'
338 GROUP BY content_level
339 ORDER BY cnt DESC
340 </pre>
341 The table shows that only about 1% of the ContentLevel values use
342 something different and more complex than <i>research</i>, when
343 the element is not empty. Morever, of this 1% (165 resources),
344 61 include the <i>general</i> value (roughly 37% of them),
345 29 (17%) state that are devoted to some <i>education</i> level only,
346 while 148 (90%) state that are also devoted to some <i>education</i> level (up to <i>university</i>).
347 </p>
348 </div> <!-- end clcurrval-->
349 </div> <!-- end appendices -->
350
351 <div class="section-nonum"><h2><a id="references" shape="rect"><span class="secnum"/>References</a></h2>
352
353 <?bibliography ivoadoc/refs?><dl>
354
355 <dt><a name="std:RI1">[std:RI1] Kevin Benson, Ray Plante, Elizabeth Auden,
356 Matthew Graham, Gretchen Greene, Martin Hill, Tony Linde, Dave Morris, Wil
357 O'Mullane, Guy Rixon, Aurélien Stébé, and Kona Andrews, Kevin Benson and
358 Ray Plante, editors.</a></dt> <dd>
359 <a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/RegistryInterface/">IVOA registry
360 interfaces version 1.0</a>.
361 IVOA Recommendation, 2009.
362 </dd>
363
364 <dt><a name="std:STDREGEXT">[std:STDREGEXT] Paul Harrison, Douglas Burke, Ray
365 Plante, Guy Rixon, and Dave Morris.</a></dt> <dd>
366 <a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/StandardsRegExt/20120508/REC-StandardsRegExt-1.0-20120508.html">StandardsRegExt: a VOResource schema extension for describing IVOA
367 standards, version 1.0</a>.
368 IVOA Recommendation, May 2012.
369 </dd>
370
371 <dt><a name="std:VOR">[std:VOR] Raymond Plante, Kevin Benson, Matthew Graham,
372 Gretchen Greene, Paul Harrison, Gerard Lemson, Tony Linde, Guy Rixon, and
373 Aurélien Stébé.</a></dt> <dd>
374 <a href="http://www.ivoa.net/Documents/REC/ReR/VOResource-20080222.html">VOResource: an XML encoding schema for resource metadata version
375 1.03</a>.
376 IVOA Recommendation, February 2008.
377 </dd>
378
379 </dl>
380
381 </div> <!-- section references -->
382
383 <hr/>
384 </body></html>

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