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revision 69 by norman.x.gray, Thu Feb 21 17:22:18 2008 UTC revision 70 by norman.x.gray, Fri Feb 22 05:00:49 2008 UTC
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22  span.userinput { font-weight: bold; }  span.userinput { font-weight: bold; }
23  span.url { font-family: monospace; }  span.url { font-family: monospace; }
24  span.rfc2119 { color: #800; }  span.rfc2119 { color: #800; }
 q { color: #666; }  
 q:before { content: "“"; }  
 q:after  { content: "”"; }  
25  .todo { background: #ff7; }  .todo { background: #ff7; }
26    
27  /* 'link here' text in section headers */  /* 'link here' text in section headers */
# Line 45  Line 42 
42  </table>  </table>
43    
44  <h1>Vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory, v@VERSION@</h1>  <h1>Vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory, v@VERSION@</h1>
45  <h2>IVOA Working Draft, @RELEASEDATE@ [DRAFT $Revision$]</h2>  <h2>IVOA Working Draft, @RELEASEDATE@<!-- [Revision $Revision$]--></h2>
46  <!-- $Revision$ $Date$ -->  <!-- $Revision$ $Date$ -->
47    
48  <dl>  <dl>
# Line 58  Line 55 
55    
56  <dt>Latest version</dt>  <dt>Latest version</dt>
57  <dd><span class='url'>@DISTURI@</span><br/>  <dd><span class='url'>@DISTURI@</span><br/>
58  and <a href='@DISTURI@/issues' >issues list</a></dd>  and <a href='@ISSUESLIST@' >issues list</a></dd>
59    
60  <dt>Editors</dt>  <dt>Editors</dt>
61  <dd>Alasdair J G Gray,  <dd>Alasdair J G Gray,
# Line 107  Line 104 
104  <div class="section-nonum" id="status">  <div class="section-nonum" id="status">
105  <p class="title">Status of this document</p>  <p class="title">Status of this document</p>
106    
107  <p>This is (<strong>an internal draft of</strong>) an IVOA Working  <p>This is an IVOA Working
108  Draft.  The first release of this document was  Draft.  The first release of this document was
109  <span property="dc:date">@RELEASEDATE@</span>.</p>  <span property="dc:date">2008 February 22</span>.</p>
110    
111  <p>This document is an IVOA Working Draft for review by IVOA members  <p>This document is an IVOA Working Draft for review by IVOA members
112  and other interested parties.  It is a draft document and may be  and other interested parties.  It is a draft document and may be
# Line 161  Line 158 
158  </p>  </p>
159    
160  <p>An astronomical ontology is necessary if we are to have a computer  <p>An astronomical ontology is necessary if we are to have a computer
161  (appear to) `understand' something of the domain.  (appear to) <q>understand</q> something of the domain.
162  There has been some progress towards creating an ontology of  There has been some progress towards creating an ontology of
163  astronomical object types <span  astronomical object types <span
164  class="cite">std:ivoa-astro-onto</span> to meet this need.  class="cite">std:ivoa-astro-onto</span> to meet this need.
# Line 179  Line 176 
176  the VO is VOEvent <span class="cite">std:voevent</span>, the VO  the VO is VOEvent <span class="cite">std:voevent</span>, the VO
177  standard for supporting rapid notification of astronomical events.  standard for supporting rapid notification of astronomical events.
178  This standard requires some formalised indication of what a published  This standard requires some formalised indication of what a published
179  event is `about', in a formalism which can be used straightforwardly  event is <q>about</q>, in a formalism which can be used straightforwardly
180  by the developer of relevant services.  See <span class='xref'  by the developer of relevant services.  See <span class='xref'
181  >usecases</span> for further discussion.</p>  >usecases</span> for further discussion.</p>
182    
# Line 203  Line 200 
200  articles, which should comprise a list of tokens/concepts more  articles, which should comprise a list of tokens/concepts more
201  up-to-date than the old list of journal keywords.  A similar but less  up-to-date than the old list of journal keywords.  A similar but less
202  formal attempt was made by Hessman <span class='cite'>hessman05</span>  formal attempt was made by Hessman <span class='cite'>hessman05</span>
203  for the VOEvent working group, resulting in a similar list <span  for the VOEvent working group, resulting in a similar list.</li>
 class="todo">[TODO] Check differences from the A&amp;A  
 list</span>.</li>  
204    
205  <li>Astronomical databases generally use simple sets of keywords  <li>Astronomical databases generally use simple sets of keywords
206  – sometimes hierarchically organised – to help users make queries.  – sometimes hierarchically organised – to help users make queries.
# Line 264  Line 259 
259  VOEvent's <code>&lt;Why/&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;What/&gt;</code>  VOEvent's <code>&lt;Why/&gt;</code> and <code>&lt;What/&gt;</code>
260  elements, which describe what  elements, which describe what
261  sort of object the VOEvent packet is describing, in some broadly  sort of object the VOEvent packet is describing, in some broadly
262  intelligible way.  For example a `burst' might be a gamma-ray burst  intelligible way.  For example a <q>burst</q> might be a gamma-ray burst
263  due to the collapse of a star in a distant galaxy, a solar flare, or  due to the collapse of a star in a distant galaxy, a solar flare, or
264  the brightening of a stellar or AGN accretion disk, and having an  the brightening of a stellar or AGN accretion disk, and having an
265  explicit list of vocabulary terms can help guide the event publisher  explicit list of vocabulary terms can help guide the event publisher
266  into using a term which will be usefully precise for the event's  into using a term which will be usefully precise for the event's
267  consumers.  A free-text label can help here (which brings us into the  consumers.  A free-text label can help here (which brings us into the
268  area sometimes referred to as `folksonomies'), but the astronomical  domain sometimes referred to as folksonomies), but the astronomical
269  community, with a culture sympathetic to international agreement, can  community, with a culture sympathetic to international agreement, can
270  do better.</p>  do better.</p>
271    
# Line 291  Line 286 
286  <li>A user is searching an archive of VOEvents for microlensing  <li>A user is searching an archive of VOEvents for microlensing
287  events, and retrieves a large number of them; the search interface may  events, and retrieves a large number of them; the search interface may
288  then prompt her to narrow her search using one of a set of terms  then prompt her to narrow her search using one of a set of terms
289  including, say, binary lens events. [This supports so-called `semantic  including, say, binary lens events. [This supports so-called <q>semantic
290  search', providing semantic support to an interface which is in turn  search</q>, providing semantic support to an interface which is in turn
291  supporting a user]</li>  supporting a user]</li>
292    
293  <li>A user wishes to search for resources based on the  <li>A user wishes to search for resources based on the
# Line 360  Line 355 
355  deploy, and it will take a while until VO applications will be able to  deploy, and it will take a while until VO applications will be able to
356  use them to full advantage.  However, the example vocabularies should  use them to full advantage.  However, the example vocabularies should
357  make it fairly easy to boot-strap the process by providing useful  make it fairly easy to boot-strap the process by providing useful
358  vocabularies that can be used `out of the box'.</p>  vocabularies that can be used out of the box.</p>
359    
360  </div>  </div>
361    
# Line 445  Line 440 
440  class='cite' >std:bs8723-1</span> and <span class='cite'  class='cite' >std:bs8723-1</span> and <span class='cite'
441  >std:z39.19</span>), and some of the (lightweight) theoretical  >std:z39.19</span>), and some of the (lightweight) theoretical
442  background.  The only technical distinction relevant to this document  background.  The only technical distinction relevant to this document
443  is that between `vocabulary' and `thesaurus': BS-8723-1 defines a  is that between vocabulary and thesaurus: BS-8723-1 defines a
444  thesaurus as a</p>  thesaurus as a</p>
445  <blockquote>  <blockquote>
446  Controlled vocabulary in which concepts are represented by preferred  Controlled vocabulary in which concepts are represented by preferred
# Line 580  Line 575 
575  </li>  </li>
576    
577  <li>Optional alternative labels which applications may encounter or in  <li>Optional alternative labels which applications may encounter or in
578  common use, whether simple synonyms or commonly-used aliases,  common use, whether simple synonyms or commonly-used aliases such as
579  e.g. <q>GRB</q> for "gamma-ray burst", or <q>Spiral nebula</q> for  <q>GRB</q> for "gamma-ray burst", or <q>Spiral nebula</q> for
580  spiral galaxies.  spiral galaxies.
581  <!--  <!--
582  <code>skos:altLabel "GRB"@en</code>  <code>skos:altLabel "GRB"@en</code>
# Line 657  Line 652 
652    
653  <li>Versioning information can be added using change notes.</li>  <li>Versioning information can be added using change notes.</li>
654    
655  <li>Additional metadata about the vocabulary, e.g. the publisher, may  <li>Additional metadata about the vocabulary, for example indicating the publisher, may
656  be documented using the Dublin Core metadata set <span class='cite'  be documented using the Dublin Core metadata set <span class='cite'
657  >std:dublincore</span>.</li>  >std:dublincore</span>.</li>
658  </ul>  </ul>
# Line 739  Line 734 
734    
735  </ul>  </ul>
736    
737  <p>  <p>The semantic mapping relationships have certain properties.
 <!-- <span class='todo'>[TODO:] Enter text regarding the resolution of <a  
 href="http://code.google.com/p/volute/issues/detail?id=7">Issue  
 7</a>.</span> -->  
   
 The semantic mapping relationships have certain properties.  
738  The broadMatch relationship has the narrowMatch relationship as its  The broadMatch relationship has the narrowMatch relationship as its
739  inverse and the exactMatch and relatedMatch relationships are  inverse and the exactMatch and relatedMatch relationships are
740  symmetrical.  symmetrical.
# Line 808  Line 798 
798  class='cite'>std:rdfxml</span> or Turtle <span  class='cite'>std:rdfxml</span> or Turtle <span
799  class='cite'>std:turtle</span> format; vocabularies <span  class='cite'>std:turtle</span> format; vocabularies <span
800  class='rfc2119'>should</span> be made available in both formats.  See  class='rfc2119'>should</span> be made available in both formats.  See
801  issue <a href='@DISTURI@/issues#distformat-2'>[distformat-2]</a>.</p>  issue <a href='@ISSUESLIST@#distformat-2'>[distformat-2]</a>.</p>
802    
803  <p>A publisher <span class='rfc2119'>may</span> make available  <p>A publisher <span class='rfc2119'>may</span> make available
804  documentation and supporting files in other formats.</p>  documentation and supporting files in other formats.</p>
# Line 825  Line 815 
815  <div class='section'>  <div class='section'>
816  <p class='title'>Clearly versioned vocabulary</p>  <p class='title'>Clearly versioned vocabulary</p>
817    
818  <p><span class='todo' >To be decided.  There are interactions with  <p><span class='todo' >Open issue.  There are interactions with the requirements for
819  'long-term availability' and 'dereferenceable namespace', since this  long-term availability and a dereferenceable namespace, since this
820  implies that the vocabulary version should be manifestly encoded in  implies that the vocabulary version should be manifestly encoded in
821  the namespace URI.</span> See issue <a  the namespace URI.</span> See issue <a
822  href='@DISTURI@/issues#versioning-3' >[versioning-3]</a>.</p>  href='@ISSUESLIST@#versioning-3' >[versioning-3]</a>.</p>
823    
824  </div>  </div>
825    
# Line 839  Line 829 
829  <p>This standard does not place any restrictions on the format of the  <p>This standard does not place any restrictions on the format of the
830  files managed by the maintenance process, as long as the distributed  files managed by the maintenance process, as long as the distributed
831  files are as specified above.  See issue  files are as specified above.  See issue
832  <a href='@DISTURI@/issues#masterformat-1' >[masterformat-1]</a>.</p>  <a href='@ISSUESLIST@#masterformat-1' >[masterformat-1]</a>.</p>
833  </div>  </div>
834    
835  </div>  </div>
# Line 867  Line 857 
857    
858  <li>Concept identifiers <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> consist  <li>Concept identifiers <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> consist
859  only of the letters a-z, A-Z, and numbers 0-9, i.e. no spaces, no  only of the letters a-z, A-Z, and numbers 0-9, i.e. no spaces, no
860  exotic letters (e.g. umlauts), and no characters which would make a  exotic letters (for example umlauts), and no characters which would make a
861  token inexpressible as part of a URI; since tokens are for use by  token inexpressible as part of a URI; since tokens are for use by
862  computers only, this is not a big restriction, since the exotic  computers only, this is not a big restriction, since the exotic
863  letters can be used within the labels and documentation if  letters can be used within the labels and documentation if
# Line 876  Line 866 
866  <li>The concept identifiers <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> be  <li>The concept identifiers <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> be
867  kept in human-readable form, directly reflect the implied meaning, and  kept in human-readable form, directly reflect the implied meaning, and
868  not be semi-random identifiers only (for example, use  not be semi-random identifiers only (for example, use
869  <q>spiralGalaxy</q>, not "t1234567"); tokens <span  <code>spiralGalaxy</code>, not <code>t1234567</code>); tokens <span
870  class='rfc2119'>should</span> preferably be created via a direct  class='rfc2119'>should</span> preferably be created via a direct
871  conversion from the preferred label via removable/translation of  conversion from the preferred label via removable/translation of
872  non-token characters (see above) and sub-token separation via  non-token characters (see above) and sub-token separation via
873  capitalisation of the first sub-token character (e.g. the label "My  capitalisation of the first sub-token character (for example the label <code>My
874  favourite idea-label #42" is converted into  favourite idea-label #42</code> is converted into
875  "MyFavouriteIdeaLabel42").</li>  <code>MyFavouriteIdeaLabel42</code>).</li>
876    
877  <li>Labels <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> be in the form of the source vocabulary. When  <li>Labels <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> be in the form of the source vocabulary. When
878  developing a new vocabulary the singular form <span  developing a new vocabulary the singular form <span
879  class='rfc2119'>should</span> be preferred,  class='rfc2119'>should</span> be preferred,
880  e.g. <q>spiral galaxy</q>, not "spiral galaxies". <span  for example <code>spiral galaxy</code>, not <code>spiral galaxies</code>.
881  class='todo'><a  <span class='todo'><a href="http://code.google.com/p/volute/issues/detail?id=1">Open issue</a></span></li>
 href="http://code.google.com/p/volute/issues/detail?id=1">Open  
 issue</a></span></li>  
882    
883  <li>Each concept <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> have a definition  <li>Each concept <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> have a definition
884  (<code>skos:definition</code>) that constitutes a short description of  (<code>skos:definition</code>) that constitutes a short description of
# Line 964  Line 952 
952  <p>The vocabularies described below are included, as SKOS files, in  <p>The vocabularies described below are included, as SKOS files, in
953  the distributed version of this standard.  These vocabularies have  the distributed version of this standard.  These vocabularies have
954  stable URLs <span class='todo' >Format TBD, see <a  stable URLs <span class='todo' >Format TBD, see <a
955  href='@DISTURI@/issues#versioning-3' >[versioning-3]</a></span>, and  href='@ISSUESLIST@#versioning-3' >[versioning-3]</a></span>, and
956  may be cited and used indefinitely.  These vocabularies will not,  may be cited and used indefinitely.  These vocabularies will not,
957  however, be developed as part of the maintenance of this standard.  however, be developed as part of the maintenance of this standard.
958  Interested groups, within and outwith the IVOA, are encouraged to take  Interested groups, within and outwith the IVOA, are encouraged to take
# Line 987  Line 975 
975  <blockquote>  <blockquote>
976  <span class='url'>@BASEURI@/@DISTNAME@.tar.gz</span>  <span class='url'>@BASEURI@/@DISTNAME@.tar.gz</span>
977  </blockquote>  </blockquote>
 <p class='todo'>Not yet: instead go to  
 <span class='url'>http://code.google.com/p/volute/downloads/list</span></p>  
978    
979  <!--  <!--
980  <p><span class='todo' >[To be expanded:] there are no mappings at the  <p class='todo'>Not yet: instead go to
981  moment.  Also, the vocabularies are all in a single language, though  <span class='url'>http://code.google.com/p/volute/downloads/list</span></p>-->
 translations of the IAU93 thesaurus are available.  See also  
 issue <a href='@DISTURI@/issues#mappings-6'>[mappings-6]</a>.</span></p>  
 -->  
982    
983  <div class='section' id='vocab-constellation'>  <div class='section' id='vocab-constellation'>
984  <p class='title'>A Constellation Name Vocabulary</p>  <p class='title'>A Constellation Name Vocabulary</p>
985    
986  <p>This vocabulary is presented as a simple example of an astronomical vocabulary for a very particular purpose, e.g. handling constellation information like that commonly encountered in variable star research. For example, <q>SS Cygni</q> is a cataclysmic variable located in the constellation <q>Cygnus</q>. The name of the star uses the genitive form <q>Cygni</q>, but the alternate label <q>SS Cyg</q> uses the standard abbreviation <q>Cyg</q>. Given the constellation vocabulary, all of these forms are recorded together in a computer-manipulatable format.  Various incorrect forms should probably be represented in SKOS `hidden labels'</p>  <p>This vocabulary is presented as a simple example of an astronomical vocabulary for a very particular purpose, such as handling constellation information like that commonly encountered in variable star research. For example, <q>SS Cygni</q> is a cataclysmic variable located in the constellation <q>Cygnus</q>. The name of the star uses the genitive form <q>Cygni</q>, but the alternate label <q>SS Cyg</q> uses the standard abbreviation <q>Cyg</q>. Given the constellation vocabulary, all of these forms are recorded together in a computer-manipulatable format.  Various incorrect forms should probably be represented in SKOS ‘hidden labels’</p>
987    
988  <p>The &lt;skos:ConceptScheme&gt; contains a single &lt;skos:TopConcept&gt;, <q>constellation</q></p>  <p>The &lt;skos:ConceptScheme&gt; contains a single &lt;skos:TopConcept&gt;, <q>constellation</q></p>
989  <br/><br/><center>  <br/><br/><center>
# Line 1139  Line 1122 
1122    
1123  <p>The UCD standard is an officially sanctioned and managed vocabulary  <p>The UCD standard is an officially sanctioned and managed vocabulary
1124  of the IVOA. The normative document is a simple text file containing  of the IVOA. The normative document is a simple text file containing
1125  entries consisting of tokens (e.g. <code>em.IR</code>), a short  entries consisting of tokens (for example <code>em.IR</code>), a short
1126  description, and usage information (<q>syntax codes</q> which permit  description, and usage information (<q>syntax codes</q> which permit
1127  UCD tokens to be concatenated). The form of the tokens implies a  UCD tokens to be concatenated). The form of the tokens implies a
1128  natural hierarchy: <code>em.IR.8-15um</code> is obviously a narrower  natural hierarchy: <code>em.IR.8-15um</code> is obviously a narrower
# Line 1150  Line 1133 
1133  translation to SKOS consists of preferred labels equal to the original  translation to SKOS consists of preferred labels equal to the original
1134  tokens (the UCD1 words include dashes and periods), vocabulary tokens  tokens (the UCD1 words include dashes and periods), vocabulary tokens
1135  created using guidelines in <span class='xref'  created using guidelines in <span class='xref'
1136  >practices</span> (e.g., "emIR815Um" for  >practices</span> (for example, "emIR815Um" for
1137  <code>em.IR.8-15um</code>), direct use of the definitions, and the syntax codes  <code>em.IR.8-15um</code>), direct use of the definitions, and the syntax codes
1138  placed in usage documentation: <code>&lt;skos:scopeNote&gt;UCD syntax code: P&lt;/skos:scopeNote&gt;</code></p>  placed in usage documentation: <code>&lt;skos:scopeNote&gt;UCD syntax code: P&lt;/skos:scopeNote&gt;</code></p>
1139    
# Line 1176  Line 1159 
1159  model of a vocabulary these are captured as alternative labels.  A  model of a vocabulary these are captured as alternative labels.  A
1160  separate document contains translations of the vocabulary terms in  separate document contains translations of the vocabulary terms in
1161  five languages: English, French, German, Italian, and  five languages: English, French, German, Italian, and
1162  Spanish.  Enumerable concepts are plural (e.g. <q>SPIRAL  Spanish.  Enumerable concepts are plural (for example <q>SPIRAL
1163  GALAXIES</q>) and non-enumerable concepts are singular  GALAXIES</q>) and non-enumerable concepts are singular
1164  (e.g. <q>STABILITY</q>). Finally, there are some usage hints like  (for example <q>STABILITY</q>). Finally, there are some usage hints like
1165  <q>combine with other</q>, which have been modelled as scope notes.</p>  <q>combine with other</q>, which have been modelled as scope notes.</p>
1166    
1167  <p>In converting the IAU Thesaurus to SKOS, we have been as faithful  <p>In converting the IAU Thesaurus to SKOS, we have been as faithful
# Line 1206  Line 1189 
1189  biases. For example, the IAU Thesaurus provides a large number of  biases. For example, the IAU Thesaurus provides a large number of
1190  entries, copious relationships, and translations to four other languages,  entries, copious relationships, and translations to four other languages,
1191  but there are no definitions, many concepts are now only useful for  but there are no definitions, many concepts are now only useful for
1192  historical purposes (e.g. many photographic or historical instrument  historical purposes (for example many photographic or historical instrument
1193  entries), some of the relationships are false or outdated, and many  entries), some of the relationships are false or outdated, and many
1194  important or newer concepts and their common abbreviations are  important or newer concepts and their common abbreviations are
1195  missing.</p>  missing.</p>
# Line 1239  Line 1222 
1222  document, Dublin Core metadata is included in the mapping  document, Dublin Core metadata is included in the mapping
1223  document.</p>  document.</p>
1224    
1225    <p class='todo'>Mappings to appear: see issue <a href='@ISSUESLIST@#mappings-6' >[mappings-6]</a>.</p>
1226    
1227  </div>  </div>
1228    
1229  <div class="appendices">  <div class="appendices">
1230    
1231  <p><span class='todo'>To come</span></p>  <!-- <p><span class='todo'>To come</span></p>-->
1232    
1233    
1234  <div class="section-nonum" id="bibliography">  <div class="section-nonum" id="bibliography">
1235  <p class="title">Bibliography</p>  <p class="title">References</p>
1236  <?bibliography rm-refs ?>  <?bibliography rm-refs ?>
1237  </div>  </div>
1238    

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