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revision 671 by alasdair.gray, Thu Jul 3 13:11:37 2008 UTC revision 672 by norman.x.gray, Thu Jul 3 15:35:07 2008 UTC
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31    
32  /* 'link here' text in section headers */  /* 'link here' text in section headers */
33  *.hlink a {  *.hlink a {
34    text-decoration: none;    display: none;
   color: #fff; /* the page background colour */  
35  }  }
36  *:hover.hlink a {  *:hover.hlink a {
37      display: inline;
38    color: #800;    color: #800;
39  }  }
40  </style>  </style>
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47  <h1>Vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory<br/>Version @VERSION@</h1>  <h1>Vocabularies in the Virtual Observatory<br/>Version @VERSION@</h1>
48    
49  <!-- for release: uncomment this text... -->  <!-- for release: uncomment this text... -->
50  <!-- <h2>IVOA Working Draft, @RELEASEDATE@</h2>-->  <h2>IVOA Working Draft, @RELEASEDATE@</h2>
51  <!-- for editors' drafts, uncomment this text...-->  <!-- for editors' drafts, uncomment this text...-->
52    <!--
53  <h2>IVOA Working Draft, @RELEASEDATE@ [Editors' draft]</h2>  <h2>IVOA Working Draft, @RELEASEDATE@ [Editors' draft]</h2>
54  <p><strong>$Revision$ $Date$</strong></p>  <p><strong>$Revision$ $Date$</strong></p>
55    -->
56    
57  <dl>  <dl>
58    
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101  confined to things easily placed in a FITS image, or expressed in a  confined to things easily placed in a FITS image, or expressed in a
102  catalogue or a table.  We propose that the IVOA adopt a standard  catalogue or a table.  We propose that the IVOA adopt a standard
103  format for vocabularies based on the W3C's <em>Resource Description  format for vocabularies based on the W3C's <em>Resource Description
104  Framework</em> (RDF) and <em>Simple Knowledge Organisation System</em>  Framework</em> (RDF) and <em>Simple Knowledge Organization System</em>
105  (SKOS).  By adopting a standard and simple format, the IVOA will  (SKOS).  By adopting a standard and simple format, the IVOA will
106  permit different groups to create and maintain their own specialised  permit different groups to create and maintain their own specialised
107  vocabularies while letting the rest of the astronomical community  vocabularies while letting the rest of the astronomical community
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365  <p>It is also not a goal of this standard to produce new vocabularies,  <p>It is also not a goal of this standard to produce new vocabularies,
366  or substantially alter existing ones; instead, the vocabularies  or substantially alter existing ones; instead, the vocabularies
367  included below in section <span class='xref'>distvocab</span> are directly  included below in section <span class='xref'>distvocab</span> are directly
368    and mechanically
369  derived from existing vocabularies (the exceptions are the IVOAT  derived from existing vocabularies (the exceptions are the IVOAT
370  vocabulary, which is ultimately intended to be a significant update to  vocabulary, which is ultimately intended to be a significant update to
371  the IAU-93 original, and the constellations vocabulary, which is  the IAU-93 original, and the constellations vocabulary, which is
# Line 452  Line 455 
455  <p>After extensive online and face-to-face discussions, the authors have  <p>After extensive online and face-to-face discussions, the authors have
456  brokered a consensus within the IVOA community that  brokered a consensus within the IVOA community that
457  formalised vocabularies should be published at least in SKOS (Simple Knowledge  formalised vocabularies should be published at least in SKOS (Simple Knowledge
458  Organisation System) format, a W3C draft standard application of RDF to the  Organization System) format, a W3C draft standard application of RDF to the
459  field of knowledge organisation <span  field of knowledge organisation <span
460  class="cite">std:skosref</span>.  SKOS draws on long experience  class="cite">std:skosref</span>.  SKOS draws on long experience
461  within the Library and Information Science community, to address a  within the Library and Information Science communities, to address a
462  well-defined set of problems to do with the indexing and retrieval of  well-defined set of problems to do with the indexing and retrieval of
463  information and resources; as such, it is a close match to the problem  information and resources; as such, it is a close match to the problem
464  this document is addressing.</p>  this document is addressing.</p>
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478  <p>and a thesaurus as a</p>  <p>and a thesaurus as a</p>
479  <blockquote>  <blockquote>
480  Controlled vocabulary in which concepts are represented by preferred  Controlled vocabulary in which concepts are represented by preferred
481  terms, formally organized so that paradigmatic relationships between  terms, formally organised so that paradigmatic relationships between
482  the concepts are made explicit, and the preferred terms are  the concepts are made explicit, and the preferred terms are
483  accompanied by lead-in entries for synonyms or quasi-synonyms.  accompanied by lead-in entries for synonyms or quasi-synonyms.
484  <!-- NOTE:  <!-- NOTE:
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487  terms to represent a given subject. -->  terms to represent a given subject. -->
488  (BS-8723-1, sect. 2.39)  (BS-8723-1, sect. 2.39)
489  </blockquote>  </blockquote>
490  <p>with a similar definition in ISO-5964 sect. 3.16.</p>  <p>with a similar definition in ISO-5964 sect. 3.16.  The
491    <q>vocabularies</q> discussed in this document are therefore more
492    properly termed thesauri.</p>
493    
494  <p>The paradigmatic relationships in question are those relating a  <p>The paradigmatic relationships in question are those relating a
495  term to a <q>broader</q>, <q>narrower</q> or more generically  term to a <q>broader</q>, <q>narrower</q> or more generically
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536  below.</p>  below.</p>
537    
538  <center>  <center>
539  <p><a name='figexample' >Figure: examples of SKOS vocabularies</a></p>  <p><a name='figexample' >Figure: examples of a SKOS vocabulary</a></p>
540  <table>  <table>
541  <tr>  <tr>
542  <th class='rdfxml'>XML Syntax</th>  <th class='rdfxml'>XML Syntax</th>
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554    &lt;skos:prefLabel lang="de"&gt;    &lt;skos:prefLabel lang="de"&gt;
555      Spiralgalaxie      Spiralgalaxie
556    &lt;/prefLabel&gt;    &lt;/prefLabel&gt;
557      &lt;skos:notation&gt;
558        5.1.1
559      &lt;/skos:notation&gt;
560    &lt;skos:altLabel lang="en"&gt;    &lt;skos:altLabel lang="en"&gt;
561      spiral nebula      spiral nebula
562    &lt;/skos:altLabel&gt;    &lt;/skos:altLabel&gt;
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586    skos:prefLabel    skos:prefLabel
587      "spiral galaxy"@en,      "spiral galaxy"@en,
588      "Spiralgalaxie"@de;      "Spiralgalaxie"@de;
589      skos:notation "5.1.1";
590    skos:altLabel "spiral nebula"@en;    skos:altLabel "spiral nebula"@en;
591    skos:hiddenLabel "spiral glaxy"@en;    skos:hiddenLabel "spiral glaxy"@en;
592    skos:definition """A galaxy having a    skos:definition """A galaxy having a
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639  <q>galaxy</q>.  <q>galaxy</q>.
640  </li>  </li>
641    
642    <li>An optional <q>notation</q> code (such as <code>5.1.1</code> for
643    spiral galaxies within the AVM), used to uniquely identify a
644    concept within a given scheme.</li>
645    
646  <li>A definition for the concept, where one exists in the original  <li>A definition for the concept, where one exists in the original
647  vocabulary, to clarify the meaning of the term.  vocabulary, to clarify the meaning of the term.
648  <!--  <!--
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844  simple act of naming (and the terms <q>GRB</q> and <q>planet</q>  simple act of naming (and the terms <q>GRB</q> and <q>planet</q>
845  remind us that there is knowledge implicit within a name), it is the  remind us that there is knowledge implicit within a name), it is the
846  latter case that generally represents the <em>knowledge</em> we have  latter case that generally represents the <em>knowledge</em> we have
847  of an object, and it is this knowledge which we must version.</p>  of an object, and it is this knowledge which we must version.  For
848    example, the concept of <q>planet</q> is a stable one, and so should
849    not be versioned, but the <em>definition</em> of a planet was changed
850    by the IAU in 2006, so that the description of a vocabulary term such
851    as <q>planet</q> would have changed then, and should be versioned.</p>
852    
853  <p>In consequence, <em>the concept URIs should not carry  <p>In consequence, <em>the concept URIs should not carry
854  version information</em>.  The partial exception to this is when a  version information</em>.  The partial exception to this is when a
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1309  303-redirections to the appropriate actual resource.</p>  303-redirections to the appropriate actual resource.</p>
1310    
1311  <p>Note that the namespace remains unversioned throughout the  <p>Note that the namespace remains unversioned throughout the
1312  maintainance history of this vocabulary, even though the actual RDF  maintenance history of this vocabulary, even though the actual RDF
1313  files being returned might change as labels or relationships are  files being returned might change as labels or relationships are
1314  adjusted.  Previous versions of the vocabulary RDF will remain  adjusted.  Previous versions of the vocabulary RDF will remain
1315  available, though they will no longer be served by dereferencing the  available, though they will no longer be served by dereferencing the

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