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revision 58 by norman.x.gray, Sun Feb 10 22:14:45 2008 UTC revision 59 by alasdair.gray, Tue Feb 12 13:03:58 2008 UTC
# Line 278  Line 278 
278  astronomical vocabularies within the Virtual Observatory, based upon  astronomical vocabularies within the Virtual Observatory, based upon
279  the W3C's SKOS standard.  We include as appendices to this proposal  the W3C's SKOS standard.  We include as appendices to this proposal
280  formalised versions of a number of existing vocabularies, encoded as  formalised versions of a number of existing vocabularies, encoded as
281  SKOS vocabularies <span class="cite">std:skoscore</span>.</p>  SKOS vocabularies <span class="cite">std:skosref</span>.</p>
282    
283  <p>Specific use-cases include the following.</p>  <p>Specific use-cases include the following.</p>
284  <ul>  <ul>
# Line 406  Line 406 
406  formalised vocabularies should be published at least in SKOS (Simple Knowledge  formalised vocabularies should be published at least in SKOS (Simple Knowledge
407  Organisation System) format, a W3C draft standard application of RDF to the  Organisation System) format, a W3C draft standard application of RDF to the
408  field of knowledge organisation <span  field of knowledge organisation <span
409  class="cite">std:skoscore</span>.  SKOS draws on long experience  class="cite">std:skosref</span>.  SKOS draws on long experience
410  within the Library and Information Science community, to address a  within the Library and Information Science community, to address a
411  well-defined set of problems to do with the indexing and retrieval of  well-defined set of problems to do with the indexing and retrieval of
412  information and resources; as such, it is a close match to the problem  information and resources; as such, it is a close match to the problem
# Line 646  Line 646 
646  we embrace them.  we embrace them.
647  This requires a mechanism to relate the concepts in the different  This requires a mechanism to relate the concepts in the different
648  vocabularies.  vocabularies.
 The W3C are in the process of developing a standard for relating the  
 concepts in different SKOS vocabularies <span  
 class='cite'>std:skosMapping</span> and when completed this should be  
 reviewed for use by the IVOA.  
649  </p>  </p>
650    
651  <p>  <p>
652  Four types of relationship are sufficient to capture the relationships  Part of the SKOS standard <span class='cite'>std:skosref</span>
653  between concepts in vocabularies and are similar to those defined for  allows a concept in one vocabulary to be related to a concept in
654  relationships between concepts within a single vocabulary.  another vocabulary.
655  The relationships are as follows.  
656  <span class='todo'>[TODO] Add specifics to the examples.</span>  There are four types of relationship provided to capture the
657    relationships between concepts in vocabularies, which are similar to
658    those defined for relationships between concepts within a single
659    vocabulary.
660    The types of mapping relationships are:
661  </p>  </p>
662    
663  <ul>  <ul>
664    
665  <li>  <li>
666  Equivalence between concepts, i.e. the concepts in the different  Equivalence between concepts, i.e. the concepts in the different
667  vocabularies refer to the same real world entity.  vocabularies refer to the same real world entity.
668  This is captured with the following RDF statement  This is captured with the RDF statement
669  <code>iau93:#SPIRALGALAXY map:exactMatch ivoat:#spiralGalaxy</code>  <blockquote>
670  which states the the spiral galaxy concept in the IAU thesaurus is the  <code>AAkeys:#Cosmology skos:exactMatch aoim:#Cosmology</code>
671  same as the spiral galaxy concept in the IVOAT.  </blockquote>
672  (Note the use of an external namespaces <code>iau93</code> and  which states that the cosmology concept in the A&amp;A Keywords is the
673  <code>ivoat</code> which must be defined within the document.)  same as the cosmology concept in the AOIM.
674    (Note the use of an external namespaces <code>AAkeys</code> and
675    <code>aoim</code> which must be defined within the document.)
676  </li>  </li>
677    
678  <li>  <li>
679  Broader concept, i.e. there is not an equivalent concept but there is  Broader concept, i.e. there is not an equivalent concept but there is
680  a more general one.  a more general one.
681  This is captured with the RDF statement <code>iau93:#XXX  This is captured with the RDF statement
682  map:broadMatch ivoat:#YYY</code> which states that the IVOAT concept  <blockquote>
683  YYY is more general than the IAU93 concept XXX.    <code>AAkeys:#Moon skos:broadMatch aoim:PlanetSatellite</code>
684    </blockquote>
685    which states that the AOIM concept Planet Satellite is a more general
686    term than the A&amp;A Keywords concept Moon.
687  </li>  </li>
688    
689  <li>  <li>
690  Narrower concept, i.e. there is not an equivalent concept but there is  Narrower concept, i.e. there is not an equivalent concept but there is
691  a more specific one.  a more specific one.
692  This is captured with the RDF statement <code>iau93:#XXX  This is captured with the RDF statement
693  map:narrowMatch ivoat:#YYY</code> which states that the IVOAT concept  <blockquote>
694  YYY is more specific than the IAU93 concept XXX.    <code>AAkeys:#IsmClouds skos:narrowMatch
695      aoim:#NebulaAppearanceDarkMolecularCloud</code>
696    </blockquote>
697    which states that the AOIM concept Nebula Appearance Dark Molecular
698    Cloud is more specific than the A&amp;A Keywords concept ISM Clouds.  
699  </li>  </li>
700    
701  <li>  <li>
702  Related concept, i.e. there is some form of relationship.  Related concept, i.e. there is some form of relationship.
703  This is captured with the RDF statement <code>iau93:#XXX  This is captured with the RDF statement
704  map:relatedMatch ivoat:#YYY</code> which states that the IAU93 concept  <blockquote>
705  XXX has an association with the IVOAT concept YYY.    <code>AAkeys:#BlackHolePhysics skos:relatedMatch
706    aoim:#StarEvolutionaryStageBlackHole</code>
707    </blockquote>
708    which states that the A&amp;A Keywords concept Black Hole Physics has
709    an association with the AOIM concept Star Evolutionary Stage Black Hole.
710  </li>  </li>
711    
712  </ul>  </ul>
713    
714  <p>  <p>
715  <span class='todo'>[TODO:] Enter text regarding the resolution of <a  <!-- <span class='todo'>[TODO:] Enter text regarding the resolution of <a
716  href="http://code.google.com/p/volute/issues/detail?id=7">Issue  href="http://code.google.com/p/volute/issues/detail?id=7">Issue
717  7</a>.</span>  7</a>.</span> -->
718    
719    The semantic mapping relationships have certain properties.
720    The broadMatch relationship has the narrowMatch relationship as its
721    inverse and the exactMatch and relatedMatch relationships are
722    symmetrical.
723    The consequence of these properties is that if you have a mapping from
724    concept <code>A</code> in one vocabulary to concept <code>B</code> in
725    another vocabulary then you can infer a mapping from concept
726    <code>B</code> to concept <code>A</code>.
727  </p>  </p>
728    
729  </div>  </div>
# Line 807  Line 830 
830  vocabularies in generic VO applications. However, VO applications  vocabularies in generic VO applications. However, VO applications
831  <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> be able to accept any vocabulary  <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> be able to accept any vocabulary
832  that complies with the latest SKOS standard  that complies with the latest SKOS standard
833  <span class="cite">std:skoscore</span> (this does not imply, of  <span class="cite">std:skosref</span> (this does not imply, of
834  course, that an application will necessarily understand the terms in  course, that an application will necessarily understand the terms in
835  an alien vocabulary, although the presence of mappings to a known  an alien vocabulary, although the presence of mappings to a known
836  vocabulary should allow it to derive some benefit).</p>  vocabulary should allow it to derive some benefit).</p>
# Line 847  Line 870 
870  vocabulary.  Each concept <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> have  vocabulary.  Each concept <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> have
871  additional documentation using SKOS Notes or  additional documentation using SKOS Notes or
872  Dublin Core terms as appropriate  Dublin Core terms as appropriate
873  (see <span class='cite'>std:skoscore</span>)</li>  (see <span class='cite'>std:skosref</span>)</li>
874    
875  <li>The language localisation <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> be  <li>The language localisation <span class='rfc2119'>should</span> be
876  declared where appropriate, in preferred labels, alternate labels,  declared where appropriate, in preferred labels, alternate labels,
# Line 885  Line 908 
908  easier to use the vocabularly in external generic VO  easier to use the vocabularly in external generic VO
909  applications. However, VO applications should be developed to accept  applications. However, VO applications should be developed to accept
910  any vocabulary that complies with the latest SKOS standard <span  any vocabulary that complies with the latest SKOS standard <span
911  class="cite">std:skoscore</span>.</p>  class="cite">std:skosref</span>.</p>
912  -->  -->
913  </div>  </div>
914    
# Line 1023  Line 1046 
1046  hierarchical relationships.  hierarchical relationships.
1047  Additionally, some of the keywords are grouped into collections which  Additionally, some of the keywords are grouped into collections which
1048  has been mirrored in the SKOS version.  has been mirrored in the SKOS version.
1049  The vocabulary contains no definitions, alternative labels, scope  The vocabulary contains no definitions or related links as these are
1050  notes, or related links, as these are not provided in the original  not provided in the original keyword list, and only a handful of
1051    alternative labels and scope notes that are present in the original
1052  keyword list.  keyword list.
1053  </p>  </p>
1054    
# Line 1039  Line 1063 
1063  It consists of a set of keywords organised into an enumerated  It consists of a set of keywords organised into an enumerated
1064  hierarchical structure.  hierarchical structure.
1065  Each term consists of a taxonomic number and a label.  Each term consists of a taxonomic number and a label.
1066  There are no alternative labels, definitions, scope notes, or cross  There are no definitions, scope notes, or cross references.
 references.  
1067  </p>  </p>
1068    
1069  <p>When converting the AOIM into SKOS, it was decided to model the  <p>When converting the AOIM into SKOS, it was decided to model the
# Line 1087  Line 1110 
1110  the SKOS version normative, since the SKOS version contains all of the  the SKOS version normative, since the SKOS version contains all of the
1111  information contained in the original text document but has the  information contained in the original text document but has the
1112  advantage of being in a standard format easily read and used by any  advantage of being in a standard format easily read and used by any
1113  application on the semantic web.</p>  application on the semantic web whilst still being usable in the
1114    current ways.</p>
1115    
1116  </div>  </div>
1117    
# Line 1095  Line 1119 
1119  <p class='title'>The 1993 IAU Thesaurus</p>  <p class='title'>The 1993 IAU Thesaurus</p>
1120    
1121  <p>The IAU Thesaurus consists of concepts with mostly capitalised  <p>The IAU Thesaurus consists of concepts with mostly capitalised
1122  labels and a rich set of thesaurus relationships (<q>BF</q> for  labels and a rich set of thesaurus relationships (<q>BT</q> for
1123  "broader form", <q>NF</q> for <q>narrower form</q>, and <q>RF</q> for  "broader term", <q>NT</q> for <q>narrower term</q>, and <q>RT</q> for
1124  <q>related form</q>).  The thesaurus also contains <q>U</q> (for  <q>related term</q>).  The thesaurus also contains <q>U</q> (for
1125  <q>use</q>) and <q>UF</q> (<q>use for</q>) relationships.  In a SKOS  <q>use</q>) and <q>UF</q> (<q>use for</q>) relationships.  In a SKOS
1126  model of a vocabulary these are captured as alternative labels.  A  model of a vocabulary these are captured as alternative labels.  A
1127  separate document contains translations of the vocabulary terms in  separate document contains translations of the vocabulary terms in
# Line 1149  Line 1173 
1173  </div>  </div>
1174  </div> <!-- End: Example vocabularies -->  </div> <!-- End: Example vocabularies -->
1175    
1176    <div class='section' id='distmappings'>
1177    <p class='title'>Example Mapping</p>
1178    
1179    <p>To show how mappings can be expressed between two vocabularies, we
1180    have provided one example mapping document which maps the concepts in
1181    the A&amp;A Keywords vocabulary to the concepts in the AOIM
1182    vocabulary.
1183    All four types of mappings were required.
1184    Since all the mapping relationships have inverse relationships
1185    defined, the mapping document can also be used to infer the set of
1186    mappings from the AOIM vocabulary to the A&amp;A keywords.
1187    </p>
1188    
1189    <p>
1190    To provide provenence information about the set of mappings in a
1191    document, dublin core metadata is included in the mapping document.
1192    </p>
1193    
1194    </div>
1195    
1196  <div class="appendices">  <div class="appendices">
1197    

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