/[volute]/trunk/projects/vocabularies/doc/vocabularies.xml
ViewVC logotype

Diff of /trunk/projects/vocabularies/doc/vocabularies.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

revision 30 by alasdair.gray, Wed Jan 9 14:18:43 2008 UTC revision 31 by alasdair.gray, Fri Jan 11 10:28:35 2008 UTC
# Line 228  Line 228 
228  <li>For decades professional journals have used a set of reasonably  <li>For decades professional journals have used a set of reasonably
229  compatible keywords to help classify the content of whole articles.  compatible keywords to help classify the content of whole articles.
230  These keywords have been analysed by Preite Martinez &amp; Lesteven  These keywords have been analysed by Preite Martinez &amp; Lesteven
231  <span class="cite">preitemartinez07</span>, from which they derived a set  <span class="cite">preitemartinez07</span>, from which they derived a
232  of common keywords constituting one of the potential bases for a  set of common keywords constituting one of the potential bases for a
233  fuller VO vocabulary.  The same authors also attempted to derive a set  fuller VO vocabulary.  The same authors also attempted to derive a set
234  of common concepts by analyzing the contents of abstracts in journal  of common concepts by analyzing the contents of abstracts in journal
235  articles, which should comprise a list of tokens/concepts more  articles, which should comprise a list of tokens/concepts more
236  up-to-date than the old list of journal keywords.  A similar but  up-to-date than the old list of journal keywords.  A similar but less
237  less formal attempt was made by Hessman for the VOEvent working group,  formal attempt was made by Hessman <span class='cite'>hessman05</span>
238  resulting in a similar list <span class="todo">Find Hessman05  for the VOEvent working group, resulting in a similar list <span
239  reference, and check differences from the A&amp;A list</span>.</li>  class="todo">Check differences from the A&amp;A list</span>.</li>
240    
241  <li>Astronomical databases generally use simple sets of keywords –  <li>Astronomical databases generally use simple sets of keywords –
242  sometimes hierarchically organized – to aid the users in the querying  sometimes hierarchically organized – to aid the users in the querying
# Line 411  Line 411 
411  <p class='title'>Content and format of a SKOS vocabulary</p>  <p class='title'>Content and format of a SKOS vocabulary</p>
412    
413  <p>A published vocabulary in SKOS format consists of a set of  <p>A published vocabulary in SKOS format consists of a set of
414  <q>concepts</q> – the examples below are shown in the Turtle notation  <q>concepts</q> – the examples below are shown in both the
415  for RDF <span class='cite' >std:turtle</span> (this is similar to the  RDF/XML and the Turtle notation for RDF <span class='cite'
416  more informal N3 notation).  >std:turtle</span> (this is similar to the more informal N3 notation).
417  Each concept should contain the following elements:</p>  Each concept should contain the following elements:</p> <ul> <li>A
418  <ul>  single URI representing the concept, mainly for use by computers but
419  <li>A single URI representing the concept, mainly for use by  preferably human-readable, e.g. an entry for <q>spiral galaxy</q>
420  computers but preferably human-readable, e.g. an entry for <q>spiral  might look like: <br/><br/><center><table><tr><th bgcolor="#eecccc">XML Syntax</th><th width="10"/><th bgcolor="#cceecc">Turtle Syntax</th></tr><tr></tr><tr>
421  galaxy</q> might look like: <code>&lt;#spiralGalaxy&gt; a  <td bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:Concept rdf:about="#spiralGalaxy"&gt;<br/>...<br/>&lt;/skos:Concept&gt;</code></td>
422  skos:Concept</code>.  <td/>
423  <!-- <code>&lt;skos:Concept rdf:about="#spiralGalaxy"&gt;</code>-->  <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>&lt;#spiralGalaxy&gt; a skos:Concept</code></td></tr>
424    </table></center>
425    <!-- <code>&lt;#spiralGalaxy&gt; a skos:Concept</code>.
426    <code>&lt;skos:Concept rdf:about="#spiralGalaxy"&gt;</code>-->
427  </li>  </li>
428    
429  <li>A prefered label in each supported language for the vocabulary for  <li>A prefered label in each supported language for the vocabulary for
430  use by humans, e.g. <code>skos:prefLabel "spiral galaxy"@en,  use by humans, e.g.
431    <br/><br/><center><table><tr>
432    <td bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:prefLabel lang="en"&gt;spiral galaxy&lt;/prefLabel&gt;<br/>&lt;skos:prefLabel lang="de"&gt;Spiralgalaxie&lt;/prefLabel&gt;</code></td>
433    <td width="10"/>
434    <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>skos:prefLabel "spiral galaxy"@en, "Spiralgalaxie"@de
435    </code></td></tr>
436    </table></center>
437    <!-- <code>skos:prefLabel "spiral galaxy"@en,
438  "Spiralgalaxie"@de</code>.  "Spiralgalaxie"@de</code>.
439  <!-- <code>&lt;skos:prefLabel&gt;spiral galaxy&lt;/skos:prefLabel&gt;</code>-->   <code>&lt;skos:prefLabel&gt;spiral galaxy&lt;/skos:prefLabel&gt;</code>-->
440  </li>  </li>
441    
442  <li>Optional alternative labels which applications may encounter or in  <li>Optional alternative labels which applications may encounter or in
443  common use, whether simple synonyms or commonly-used aliases,  common use, whether simple synonyms or commonly-used aliases,
444  e.g. <q>GRB</q> for "gamma-ray burst": <code>skos:altLabel  e.g. <q>GRB</q> for "gamma-ray burst":
445  "GRB"@en</code> <!--<code>&lt;skos:altLabel  <br/><br/><center><table><tr>
446    <td bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:altLabel lang="en"&gt;GRB&lt;/prefLabel&gt;</code></td>
447    <td width="10"/>
448    <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>skos:altLabel "GRB"@en</code></td></tr>
449    </table></center>
450     <!-- code>skos:altLabel "GRB"@en</code> <code>&lt;skos:altLabel
451  lang="de"&gt;Spiralgalaxie&lt;/skos:altLabel&gt;</code> --></li>  lang="de"&gt;Spiralgalaxie&lt;/skos:altLabel&gt;</code> --></li>
452    
453  <li>Optional hidden labels which capture common misspellings for  <li>Optional hidden labels which capture common misspellings for
454  either the preferred or alternate labels, e.g. <q>spiral glaxy</q> for  either the preferred or alternate labels, e.g. <q>spiral glaxy</q> for
455  <q>spiral galaxy</q>: <code>skos:hiddenLabel "spiral  <q>spiral galaxy</q>:
456  glaxy"@en</code>.</li>  <br/><br/><center><table><tr>
457    <td bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:hiddenLabel lang="en"&gt;spiral glaxy&lt;/prefLabel&gt;</code></td>
458    <td width="10"/>
459    <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>skos:altLabel "spiral glaxy"@en</code></td></tr>
460    </table></center>
461    <!-- <code>skos:hiddenLabel "spiral glaxy"@en</code>-->.</li>
462    
463  <li>A definition for the concept, where one exists in the original  <li>A definition for the concept, where one exists in the original
464  vocabulary, to clarify the meaning of the term,  vocabulary, to clarify the meaning of the term, e.g.
465  e.g. <code>skos:definition "A galaxy having a spiral  <br/><br/><center><table><tr> <td
466  structure."@en</code>.</li>  bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:definition lang="en"&gt;<br/>A galaxy
467    having a spiral structure.<br/>&lt;/skos:definition&gt;</code></td>
468    <td width="10"/> <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>skos:definition "A galaxy
469    having a spiral structure."@en</code></td></tr> </table></center>
470    <!--<code>skos:definition "A galaxy having a spiral
471    structure."@en</code>-->.</li>
472    
473  <li>A scope note to further clarify a defintion, or the usage of the  <li>A scope note to further clarify a defintion, or the usage of the
474  concept, e.g. <code>skos:scopeNote "Spiral galaxies fall into one of  concept, e.g.
475  three categories: Sa, Sc, and Sd"@en</code>.</li>  <br/><br/><center><table><tr>
476    <td bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:scopeNote lang="en"&gt;<br/>Spiral galaxies fall into one of three catagories: Sa, Sc, and Sd.<br/>&lt;/skos:scopeNote&gt;</code></td>
477    <td width="10"/>
478    <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>skos:scopeNote "Spiral galaxies fall into one of
479    three categories: Sa, Sc, and Sd"@en</code>.</td></tr>
480    </table></center>
481    <!-- <code>skos:scopeNote "Spiral galaxies fall into one of
482    three categories: Sa, Sc, and Sd"@en</code>-->.</li>
483    
484  <li>Optional, a concept may be involved in any number of relationships  <li>Optional, a concept may be involved in any number of relationships
485  to other concepts. The types of relationships are  to other concepts. The types of relationships are
486  <ul>  <ul>
487  <li>Narrower or more specific concepts, e.g. a link to the concept  <li>Narrower or more specific concepts, e.g. a link to the concept
488  representing a <q>barred spiral galaxy</q>: <code>skos:narrower  representing a <q>barred spiral galaxy</q>:
489    <br/><br/><center><table><tr>
490    <td bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:narrower rdf:resource="#barredSpiralGalaxy"/&gt;</code></td>
491    <td width="10"/>
492    <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>skos:narrower &lt;#barredSpiralGalaxy&gt;</code></td></tr>
493    </table></center>
494    <!--
495    <code>skos:narrower
496  &lt;#barredSpiralGalaxy&gt;</code>.  &lt;#barredSpiralGalaxy&gt;</code>.
497  <!--<code>&lt;skos:narrower rdf:resource="#barredSpiralGalaxy&gt;</code>-->  <code>&lt;skos:narrower rdf:resource="#barredSpiralGalaxy&gt;</code> -->
498  </li>  </li>
499  <li>Broader or more general concepts, e.g. a link to the token  <li>Broader or more general concepts, e.g. a link to the token
500  representing galaxies in general: <code>skos:broader  representing galaxies in general:
501    <br/><br/><center><table><tr>
502    <td bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:broader rdf:resource="#galaxy"/&gt;</code></td>
503    <td width="10"/>
504    <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>skos:broader &lt;#galaxy&gt;</code></td></tr>
505    </table></center>
506    <!-- <code>skos:broader
507  &lt;#galaxy&gt;</code>.  &lt;#galaxy&gt;</code>.
508  <!--<code>&lt;skos:broader rdf:resource="#galaxy&gt;</code>-->  <code>&lt;skos:broader rdf:resource="#galaxy&gt;</code>-->
509  </li>  </li>
510  <li>Related concepts, e.g. a link to the token representing spiral  <li>Related concepts, e.g. a link to the token representing spiral
511  arms of galaxies: <code>skos:related &lt;#spiralArm&gt;</code>  arms of galaxies:
512  <!--<code>&lt;skos:related rdf:resource="#spiralArm"&gt;</code>-->  <br/><br/><center><table><tr>
513    <td bgcolor="#eecccc"><code>&lt;skos:related rdf:resource="#spiralArm"/&gt;</code></td>
514    <td width="10"/>
515    <td bgcolor="#cceecc"><code>skos:related &lt;#spiralArm&gt;</code></td></tr>
516    </table></center>
517    <br/>
518    <!-- <code>skos:related &lt;#spiralArm&gt;</code>
519    <code>&lt;skos:related rdf:resource="#spiralArm"&gt;</code> -->
520  (note this relationship does not say that spiral galaxies have spiral  (note this relationship does not say that spiral galaxies have spiral
521  arms – that would be ontological information of a higher order which  arms – that would be ontological information of a higher order which
522  is beyond the requirements for information stored in a vocabulary).</li>  is beyond the requirements for information stored in a vocabulary).</li>
# Line 680  Line 732 
732  <p>This vocabulary is presented as a simple example of an astronomical vocabulary for a very particular purpose, e.g. handling constellation information like that commonly encountered in variable star research. For example, <q>SS Cygni</q> is a cataclysmic variable located in the constellation <q>Cygnus</q>. The name of the star uses the genitive form <q>Cygni</q>, but the alternate label <q>SS Cyg</q> uses the standard abbreviation <q>Cyg</q>. Given the constellation vocabulary, all of these forms are recorded together in a computer-manipulatable format. <span class='todo'>`Incorrect' forms should probably be represented in SKOS `hidden labels'</span></p>  <p>This vocabulary is presented as a simple example of an astronomical vocabulary for a very particular purpose, e.g. handling constellation information like that commonly encountered in variable star research. For example, <q>SS Cygni</q> is a cataclysmic variable located in the constellation <q>Cygnus</q>. The name of the star uses the genitive form <q>Cygni</q>, but the alternate label <q>SS Cyg</q> uses the standard abbreviation <q>Cyg</q>. Given the constellation vocabulary, all of these forms are recorded together in a computer-manipulatable format. <span class='todo'>`Incorrect' forms should probably be represented in SKOS `hidden labels'</span></p>
733    
734  <p>The &lt;skos:ConceptScheme&gt; contains a single &lt;skos:TopConcept&gt;, <q>constellation</q></p>  <p>The &lt;skos:ConceptScheme&gt; contains a single &lt;skos:TopConcept&gt;, <q>constellation</q></p>
735    <br/><br/><center><table><tr><th bgcolor="#eecccc">XML Syntax</th><th width="10"/><th bgcolor="#cceecc">Turtle Syntax</th></tr><tr></tr><tr>
736    <td bgcolor="#eecccc">
737  <pre>  <pre>
738          &lt;skos:Concept rdf:about="#constellation"&gt;  &lt;skos:Concept rdf:about="#constellation"&gt;
739                  &lt;skos:inScheme rdf:resource=""/&gt;    &lt;skos:inScheme rdf:resource=""/&gt;
740                  &lt;skos:prefLabel&gt;constellation&lt;/skos:prefLabel&gt;    &lt;skos:prefLabel&gt;
741                  &lt;skos:definition&gt;IAU-sanctioned constellation names&lt;/skos:definition&gt;      constellation
742                  &lt;skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Andromeda"/&gt;    &lt;/skos:prefLabel&gt;
743                  ...    &lt;skos:definition&gt;
744                  &lt;skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Vulpecula"/&gt;      IAU-sanctioned constellation names
745          &lt;/skos:Concept&gt;    &lt;/skos:definition&gt;
746      &lt;skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Andromeda"/&gt;
747      ...
748      &lt;skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Vulpecula"/&gt;
749    &lt;/skos:Concept&gt;
750  </pre>  </pre>
751  <p><span class='todo' >Alternate Turtle form, for illustration, with  </td>
752  the SKOS namespace being the default...</span></p>  <td/>
753    <td bgcolor="#cceecc">
754  <pre>  <pre>
755  &lt;#constellation&gt; a :Concept;  &lt;#constellation&gt; a :Concept;
756      :inScheme &lt;&gt;;    :inScheme &lt;&gt;;
757      :prefLabel "constellation";    :prefLabel "constellation";
758      :definition "IAU-sanctioned constellation names";    :definition "IAU-sanctioned constellation names";
759      :narrower &lt;#Andromeda&gt;;    :narrower &lt;#Andromeda&gt;;
760      ...    ...
761      :narrower &lt;#Vulpecula&gt;.    :narrower &lt;#Vulpecula&gt;.
762  </pre>  </pre>
763    </td></tr>
764    </table></center>
765  <p>and the entry for <q>Cygnus</q> is</p>  <p>and the entry for <q>Cygnus</q> is</p>
766    <center><table><tr>
767    <td bgcolor="#eecccc">
768  <pre>  <pre>
769          &lt;skos:Concept rdf:about="#Cygnus"&gt;  &lt;skos:Concept rdf:about="#Cygnus"&gt;
770                  &lt;skos:inScheme rdf:resource=""/&gt;    &lt;skos:inScheme rdf:resource=""/&gt;
771                  &lt;skos:prefLabel&gt;Cygnus&lt;/skos:prefLabel&gt;    &lt;skos:prefLabel&gt;Cygnus&lt;/skos:prefLabel&gt;
772                  &lt;skos:definition&gt;Cygnus&lt;/skos:definition&gt;    &lt;skos:definition&gt;Cygnus&lt;/skos:definition&gt;
773                  &lt;skos:altLabel&gt;Cygni&lt;/skos:altLabel&gt;    &lt;skos:altLabel&gt;Cygni&lt;/skos:altLabel&gt;
774                  &lt;skos:altLabel&gt;Cyg&lt;/skos:altLabel&gt;    &lt;skos:altLabel&gt;Cyg&lt;/skos:altLabel&gt;
775                  &lt;skos:broader rdf:resource="#constellation"/&gt;    &lt;skos:broader rdf:resource="#constellation"/&gt;
776                  &lt;skos:scopeNote&gt;Cygnus is nominative form; The alternative labels are the genitive and short forms&lt;/skos:scopeNote&gt;    &lt;skos:scopeNote&gt;
777          &lt;/skos:Concept&gt;      Cygnus is nominative form; the alternative
778        labels are the genitive and short forms
779      &lt;/skos:scopeNote&gt;
780    &lt;/skos:Concept&gt;
781  </pre>  </pre>
782    </td>
783    <td width="10"/>
784    <td bgcolor="#cceecc">
785    <pre>
786    &lt;#Cygnus&gt; a :Concept;
787      :inScheme &lt;&gt;;
788      :prefLabel "Cygnus";
789      :definition "Cygnus";
790      :altLabel "Cygni";
791      :altLabel "Cyg";
792      :broader &lt;#constellation&gt;;
793      :scopeNote "Cygnus is nominative form; the alternative
794        labels are the genitive and short forms".
795    </pre>
796    </td>
797    </tr></table></center>
798    
799  <p>Note that SKOS alone does not permit the distinct differentiation  <p>Note that SKOS alone does not permit the distinct differentiation
800  of genitive forms and abbreviations, but the use of alternate labels  of genitive forms and abbreviations, but the use of alternate labels
801  is more than adequate enough for processing by VO applications where  is more than adequate enough for processing by VO applications where
# Line 733  Line 816 
816  five languages: English, French, German, Italian, and  five languages: English, French, German, Italian, and
817  Spanish. Enumeratable concepts are plural (e.g. <q>SPIRAL  Spanish. Enumeratable concepts are plural (e.g. <q>SPIRAL
818  GALAXIES</q>) and non-enumerable concepts are singular  GALAXIES</q>) and non-enumerable concepts are singular
819  (e.g. <q>STABILITY</q>). Finally, there are some usage hints like  (e.g. <q>STABILITY</q>). Finally, there are some useage hints like
820  <q>combine with other</q></p>  <q>combine with other</q></p>
821    
822  <p>In converting the IAU Thesaurus to SKOS, we have been as faithful  <p>In converting the IAU Thesaurus to SKOS, we have been as faithful

Legend:
Removed from v.30  
changed lines
  Added in v.31

msdemlei@ari.uni-heidelberg.de
ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.26