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12  <meta name="author" content="Marco Molinaro" />  <meta name="author" content="Marco Molinaro" />
13  <meta name="maintainedBy" content="Marco Molinaro" />  <meta name="maintainedBy" content="Marco Molinaro" />
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66    
67  <h2>Abstract</h2>  <h2>Abstract</h2>
68  <p>  <p>
69  The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain the needs  The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain practices followed
70  rising from first attempts in deploying astrophysical resources  and requirements found while creating and
71  dedicated to educational purposes inside standard VO resources.  deploying astrophysical resources
72    dedicated to educational purposes within the standard VO framework.
73  Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be  Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
74  possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant  possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
75  standards.  standards.
76  </p>  </p>
77  <p>  
78  In detail, here is discussed: the curation of educational resources  <p>In detail, we discuss: the curation of educational resources inside or
79  inside or along with standard registration; the reasons for documents,  along with standard registries; use cases and techniques for registering
80  tutorials and similar to be registered and searched through registries  and locating documents, tutorials and similar within the registries;
81  alongside with the means of reaching this goal; an idea for resource  dealing with multiple languages.</p>
 language internationalization.  
 </p>  
 <p>  
 VO resources as useful material for astronomy and astrophysics  
 education and dissemination has been proved by various international  
 projects and direct request for educational data publishing has arised  
 from networks of educational telescopes.  
 </p>  
82    
83  <h2> Status of This Document</h2>  <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
84  <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>  <p id="statusdecl">(updated automatically)</p>
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99  <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>  <h1><a id="Introduction"></a>Introduction</h1>
100  <p>  <p>
101  Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting  Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
102  opportunities for teachers to bring observational astronomy into their  opportunities for teachers to bring astronomy into their
103  classrooms. In fact, there is a growing availability of remotely controlled  classrooms.  As the VO makes science-grade data publicly available and
104    classroom sets of (suitably) networked PCs are now standard in schools,
105    exciting projects come within reach of common schools.  To realize the
106    possiblities, it is important to disseminate material to help teachers
107    tap into these resources.  These include documented step-by-step
108    tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical research performed
109    using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats and
110    have been translated in different languages.
111    </p>
112    
113    <p>But new opportunities also come on the observational side.
114    There is a growing availability of remotely controlled
115  telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the  telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
116  Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)  Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
117  to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune  to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
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133  therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing  therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
134  educational data in VO archives.  educational data in VO archives.
135  </p>  </p>
136  <p>  
137  Alongside with these data collections and service based resources an important  <p>Resource registration for both data services and documents is the
138  role is played also by tutorials and use cases adopted in astrophysics dissemination.  obvious answer to the questions raised by this scenario.  While
139  Documented step-by-step tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical  technically this seems not a great problem, keeping too technical
140  research performed using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats  research services out of the the resources devoted to education will
141  and have been translated in different lancguages. Providing a way to preserve them  require some effort, as will avoiding a contamination of the "research
142  and make them easily searchable will be an added value to teachers and researchers  VO" with obviously inadequate material.</p>
143  involved in education and dissemination, both for astrophysics and the VO.  
144  </p>  <p>The next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
 <p>  
 Resource registration for both data services and documents gives a nice answer to  
 the scenario here above described (while efforts for data archiving will rely upon  
 interested data centers), but, while technically this seems not a great problem,  
 from the point of view of keeping clean the resources devoted to education will  
 require some more effort.  
 </p>  
 <p>  
 Next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then  
145  <a href="#regext">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for  <a href="#regext">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
146  registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language  registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
147  internationalization of resources will be discussed.  internationalization of resources will be discussed.
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151  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
152  <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>  <h2><a id="curreg">A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
153  <p>  <p>
154  From a technical point of view there is no need to add new elements or extensions  From a technical point of view the registration of educational services
155  to the existing standard for VO Resources (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>) and extensions  does not require extensions
156  to let astrophysical resources devoted to educational, outreach or amateur targets.  to the existing for VOResource standard (<cite>std:VOR</cite>).
157  The only real need for investigating changes in what already exists is due to a  The only real need for investigating changes to what already exists is due to a
158  use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination  use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
159  versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.  versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
160  </p>  </p>
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186  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
187    <h3><a id="contentlvl">ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>    <h3><a id="contentlvl">ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
188    <p>    <p>
189    In <cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite> already exists the <i>ContentLevel</i> element    <cite>std:VOR</cite> already has the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
190    allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being    allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
191    suitable for one or more of the following audiences:    suitable for one or more of the following audiences:</p>
192    <ul>    <ul>
193          <li>General</li>          <li>General</li>
194          <li>Elementary Education</li>          <li>Elementary Education</li>
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200          <li>Amateur</li>          <li>Amateur</li>
201          <li>Informal Education</li>          <li>Informal Education</li>
202    </ul>    </ul>
203    This element turns out to be misused by resource publisher probably because    <p>This element turns out to be misused by many publishers, presumably because
204    it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available    it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
205    possibilities are. Probably, simplifying the view on this element, e.g.    possibilities are; also, requiring a fairly substantial enumeration to
206    restricting to only three:    convey "for school use" seems, in retrospect, not likely to promote
207      widespread adoption. We hence propose to simplify the content model
208      to:</p>
209    <ul>    <ul>
210          <li>General</li>          <li>General</li>
211          <li>Research</li>          <li>Research</li>
212          <li>Amateur</li>          <li>Amateur</li>
213    </ul>    </ul>
214    possible values may lead to both a better description of their resources    <p>We expect this to make publishers to, on average, better describe
215    by data providers and a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on    their resources while still providing
216      a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
217    differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to    differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to
218    add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even    add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even
219    substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.    substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.
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226    (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these    (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these
227    figures).    figures).
228    </p>    </p>
229      <p>Until the change in VOResource can be effected, the proposed
230      change can work as a "best practice" recommendation, possibly even on
231      registry level, where registries can map University to Research and
232      everything else except Amateur to General.</p>
233  </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->  </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
234    
235  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
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237    <p>    <p>
238    Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system    Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
239    a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for    a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
240    educators to easily access the wanted data and services. A good example    educators let their students work with a registry without having to
241    for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas, that has a    worry about confusing material or overwhelming data sizes. A good example
242      for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas that has a
243    built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level    built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level
244    tutorials.    tutorials.
245    </p>    </p>
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249    the IVOA resource registry architecture.    the IVOA resource registry architecture.
250    </p>    </p>
251    <p>    <p>
252    If such a registry were a standard local registry (<cite>std:RI1</cite>)    If such a registry were a standard publishing registry
253      (<cite>std:RI1</cite>),
254    its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means    its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
255    that any educational dedicated resource will go into the full VO    that any dedicated educational resource would end up in the full VO
256    set of resources, which is what we don't want to happen to keep the    set of resources.  For reasons mentioned above, this does not seem
257    <i>professional</i> side robust.    desirable.</p>
   </p>  
258    <p>    <p>
259    If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing    If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
260    resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational    resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
261    scope the registry has to be preservde for.    scope the registry has to be preservde for.
262    </p>    </p>
263    <p>    <p>
264    What is needed is a resource (the curated registry) capable of :    What is needed is a resource (the curated, in <cite>std:RI1</cite>
265      parlance, local, registry) capable of :
266    <ul>    <ul>
267          <li><i>manually</i> harvesting the existing VO resources          <li><i>selectively</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
268          (e.g. from a full registry);</li>          (e.g. from a full registry);</li>
269          <li>register its own educational resources without being directly          <li>register its own educational resources without being directly
270          harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a          harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
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273    </ul>    </ul>
274    </p>    </p>
275    <p>    <p>
276    The drawing in Fig. 1 exemplifies the above descripted    In Fig. 1 wie illustrate this <span class="edit">(XXX NO FIGURE IN
277      SVN, PLUS MAKE THIS A CAPTION XXX)</span>
278    scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture    scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
279    while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to    while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
280    be curated.    be curated.
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290  like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at  like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
291  least as important.  Within the VO community, there is a large body of  least as important.  Within the VO community, there is a large body of
292  such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to  such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
293  researchers (TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO works).</p>  researchers <span class="edit">(TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO
294    works).</span></p>
295    
296  <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various  <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
297  projects on plain web pages.  It was, in consequence, hard to find it.  projects on plain web pages.  It was, in consequence, hard to find, with
298  Also, locating editable forms of such texts -- which has been found to  knowledge of it often passed on antecdotically.  To remedy this, we
299  be necessary fairly regularly -- has been at least difficult; while  propose to keep record of such material in the registry.</p>
 representing source-product relationships is in principle in the domain  
 of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry, in the case of  
 texts the relation is so simple and its representation so useful that we  
 propose to include it in a simple registry extension covering text-like  
 material, dubbed DocRegExt in the following.</p>  
300    
301  <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of  <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
302  course are also text-like (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>).  This extension,  course are also text-like (<cite>std:STDREGEXT</cite>).  This extension,
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305  material.  Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which  material.  Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
306  can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards  can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
307  the issue of document formats, which for educational material is  the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
308  important.</p>  important.  We therefore propose a simple registry extension covering
309    text-like material, dubbed DocRegExt.  In the following, we collect
310    use cases for that extension.</p>
311    
312    
313  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
314  <h3><a id="regext-usecases">Use Cases</a></h3>  <h3><a id="regext-usecases">Use Cases</a></h3>
# Line 339  Line 345 
345  answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this  answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
346  information in useable form)</li>  information in useable form)</li>
347  <li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror").  Is it  <li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror").  Is it
348  the latest version?  If not, where can I find an update?</li>  the latest version?  If not, where can I find an update? (Unless the
349    title of the text changed, standard VOResource should suffice)</li>
350  </ul>  </ul>
351  </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->  </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
352    
353    <p>On the use cases of locating editable forms of such texts -- which
354    has been found to be necessary fairly regularly -- we note in passing
355    that representing source-product relationships is in principle in the
356    domain of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry. However, in
357    the case discussed here the relation is so simple and its representation
358    so useful that we propose to include it in a DocRegExt.</p>
359    
360    <p class="edit">Actually write the extension</p>
361    
362  </div> <!-- section regext -->  </div> <!-- section regext -->
363    
364  <div class="section">  <div class="section">
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367  The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials  The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
368  in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level  in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
369  educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an  educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
370  audience not skilled enough with the english language. It would be an added  audience not skilled enough with the English language. It would be an added
371  value in this case to be able to register an educational or  value in this case to be able to register an educational or
372  documental resource not only in english (as it is done currently with  document resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
373  standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.  standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
374  </p>  </p>
375  <p>  <p>

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