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revision 2409 by marco.merot@gmail.com, Thu Jan 30 13:35:23 2014 UTC revision 2410 by volute@g-vo.org, Mon Feb 3 16:01:20 2014 UTC
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6  <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"><title>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory IVOA Note  9 September 2013</title><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/><meta name="Title" content="Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory"/><meta name="author" content="Marco Molinaro"/><meta name="maintainedBy" content="Marco Molinaro"/><link href="http://www.ivoa.net/misc/ivoa_a.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/><!-- Add other styling information here (but this element, if present, mustn't be empty)  <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head profile="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml/vocab"><title>Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory IVOA Note  9 September 2013</title><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"/><meta name="Title" content="Educational Resources in the Virtual Observatory"/><meta name="author" content="Marco Molinaro"/><meta name="maintainedBy" content="Marco Molinaro"/><link href="http://www.ivoa.net/misc/ivoa_a.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"/><style type="text/css" xml:space="preserve">
7    <style type="text/css"></style>  .edit {
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38    
39  <h2>Abstract</h2>  <h2>Abstract</h2>
40  <p>  <p>
41  The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain the needs  The goal of this IVOA Note is to introduce and explain practices followed
42  rising from first attempts in deploying astrophysical resources  and requirements found while creating and
43  dedicated to educational purposes inside standard VO resources.  deploying astrophysical resources
44    dedicated to educational purposes within the standard VO framework.
45  Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be  Issues, proposed solutions and desirables are here reported to be
46  possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant  possibly taken into account in future modifications of relevant
47  standards.  standards.
48  </p>  </p>
49  <p>  
50  In detail, here is discussed: the curation of educational resources  <p>In detail, we discuss: the curation of educational resources inside or
51  inside or along with standard registration; the reasons for documents,  along with standard registries; use cases and techniques for registering
52  tutorials and similar to be registered and searched through registries  and locating documents, tutorials and similar within the registries;
53  alongside with the means of reaching this goal; an idea for resource  dealing with multiple languages.</p>
 language internationalization.  
 </p>  
 <p>  
 VO resources as useful material for astronomy and astrophysics  
 education and dissemination has been proved by various international  
 projects and direct request for educational data publishing has arised  
 from networks of educational telescopes.  
 </p>  
54    
55  <h2> Status of This Document</h2>  <h2> Status of This Document</h2>
56  <p id="statusdecl"><em>  <p id="statusdecl"><em>
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77  <div class="section"><h2><a id="Introduction" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">1. </span>Introduction</a></h2>  <div class="section"><h2><a id="Introduction" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">1. </span>Introduction</a></h2>
78  <p>  <p>
79  Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting  Advances in technology and communications are creating new and exciting
80  opportunities for teachers to bring observational astronomy into their  opportunities for teachers to bring astronomy into their
81  classrooms. In fact, there is a growing availability of remotely controlled  classrooms.  As the VO makes science-grade data publicly available and
82    classroom sets of (suitably) networked PCs are now standard in schools,
83    exciting projects come within reach of common schools.  To realize the
84    possiblities, it is important to disseminate material to help teachers
85    tap into these resources.  These include documented step-by-step
86    tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical research performed
87    using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats and
88    have been translated in different languages.
89    </p>
90    
91    <p>But new opportunities also come on the observational side.
92    There is a growing availability of remotely controlled
93  telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the  telescopes dedicated to education in many countries world-wide, from the
94  Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)  Bradford Robotic Telescope on MountTeide, Tenerife (http://www.telescope.org)
95  to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune  to the radio telescopes of the Radio Physics Lab, IUCAA, Pune
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111  therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing  therefore a natural decision for VO to tackle the problem of publishing
112  educational data in VO archives.  educational data in VO archives.
113  </p>  </p>
114  <p>  
115  Alongside with these data collections and service based resources an important  <p>Resource registration for both data services and documents is the
116  role is played also by tutorials and use cases adopted in astrophysics dissemination.  obvious answer to the questions raised by this scenario.  While
117  Documented step-by-step tutorials, use cases that explain basic astrophysical  technically this seems not a great problem, keeping too technical
118  research performed using VO tools and resources, and similar exist in various formats  research services out of the the resources devoted to education will
119  and have been translated in different lancguages. Providing a way to preserve them  require some effort, as will avoiding a contamination of the "research
120  and make them easily searchable will be an added value to teachers and researchers  VO" with obviously inadequate material.</p>
121  involved in education and dissemination, both for astrophysics and the VO.  
122  </p>  <p>The next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then
 <p>  
 Resource registration for both data services and documents gives a nice answer to  
 the scenario here above described (while efforts for data archiving will rely upon  
 interested data centers), but, while technically this seems not a great problem,  
 from the point of view of keeping clean the resources devoted to education will  
 require some more effort.  
 </p>  
 <p>  
 Next section will discuss the idea of educational resources curation, then  
123  <a href="#regext" shape="rect">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for  <a href="#regext" shape="rect">Registering Texts</a> will work out the use cases and needs for
124  registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language  registration of tutorials and documents. Finally, the idea of introducing language
125  internationalization of resources will be discussed.  internationalization of resources will be discussed.
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128    
129  <div class="section"><h2><a id="curreg" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2. </span>A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>  <div class="section"><h2><a id="curreg" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2. </span>A Curated Registry for Education</a></h2>
130  <p>  <p>
131  From a technical point of view there is no need to add new elements or extensions  From a technical point of view the registration of educational services
132  to the existing standard for VO Resources (<cite>[<a href="#std:STDREGEXT">std:STDREGEXT</a>]</cite>) and extensions  does not require extensions
133  to let astrophysical resources devoted to educational, outreach or amateur targets.  to the existing for VOResource standard (<cite>[<a href="#std:VOR">std:VOR</a>]</cite>).
134  The only real need for investigating changes in what already exists is due to a  The only real need for investigating changes to what already exists is due to a
135  use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination  use case's distinction between resources to be used in teaching and dissemination
136  versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.  versus all the research driven resources that exist in the VO.
137  </p>  </p>
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161    
162  <div class="section"><h3><a id="contentlvl" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.2. </span>ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>  <div class="section"><h3><a id="contentlvl" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.2. </span>ContentLevel granularity issue</a></h3>
163    <p>    <p>
164    In <cite>[<a href="#std:STDREGEXT">std:STDREGEXT</a>]</cite> already exists the <i>ContentLevel</i> element    <cite>[<a href="#std:VOR">std:VOR</a>]</cite> already has the <i>ContentLevel</i> element
165    allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being    allowing data publishers to optionally identify their resources as being
166    suitable for one or more of the following audiences:    suitable for one or more of the following audiences:</p>
167    <ul><li>General</li><li>Elementary Education</li><li>Middle School Education</li><li>Secondary Education</li><li>Community College</li><li>University</li><li>Research</li><li>Amateur</li><li>Informal Education</li></ul>    <ul><li>General</li><li>Elementary Education</li><li>Middle School Education</li><li>Secondary Education</li><li>Community College</li><li>University</li><li>Research</li><li>Amateur</li><li>Informal Education</li></ul>
168    This element turns out to be misused by resource publisher probably because    <p>This element turns out to be misused by many publishers, presumably because
169    it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available    it is not really clear what the subtle differences between the available
170    possibilities are. Probably, simplifying the view on this element, e.g.    possibilities are; also, requiring a fairly substantial enumeration to
171    restricting to only three:    convey "for school use" seems, in retrospect, not likely to promote
172      widespread adoption. We hence propose to simplify the content model
173      to:</p>
174    <ul><li>General</li><li>Research</li><li>Amateur</li></ul>    <ul><li>General</li><li>Research</li><li>Amateur</li></ul>
175    possible values may lead to both a better description of their resources    <p>We expect this to make publishers to, on average, better describe
176    by data providers and a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on    their resources while still providing
177      a suitable tagging solution for a first filtering on
178    differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to    differently targeted resources at client level. Of course, the chance to
179    add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even    add and <i>Educational</i> value option to this shrinked list, or even
180    substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.    substitute it to the <i>General</i> one, would be a valuable change.
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187    (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these    (or set of values) set for this element (Appendix A details better these
188    figures).    figures).
189    </p>    </p>
190      <p>Until the change in VOResource can be effected, the proposed
191      change can work as a "best practice" recommendation, possibly even on
192      registry level, where registries can map University to Research and
193      everything else except Amateur to General.</p>
194  </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->  </div> <!-- subsection contentlvl -->
195    
196  <div class="section"><h3><a id="edureg" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.3. </span>Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>  <div class="section"><h3><a id="edureg" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">2.3. </span>Curating the Edu Registry</a></h3>
197    <p>    <p>
198    Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system    Even in the case of the simplified <i>ContentLevel</i> tagging system
199    a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for    a curated registry for educational VO resources will be useful for
200    educators to easily access the wanted data and services. A good example    educators let their students work with a registry without having to
201    for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas, that has a    worry about confusing material or overwhelming data sizes. A good example
202      for this is the educational version of the Aladin sky atlas that has a
203    built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level    built in, curated set of resources suitable for educational level
204    tutorials.    tutorials.
205    </p>    </p>
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209    the IVOA resource registry architecture.    the IVOA resource registry architecture.
210    </p>    </p>
211    <p>    <p>
212    If such a registry were a standard local registry (<cite>[<a href="#std:RI1">std:RI1</a>]</cite>)    If such a registry were a standard publishing registry
213      (<cite>[<a href="#std:RI1">std:RI1</a>]</cite>),
214    its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means    its resources would be harvested by the full registries: this means
215    that any educational dedicated resource will go into the full VO    that any dedicated educational resource would end up in the full VO
216    set of resources, which is what we don't want to happen to keep the    set of resources.  For reasons mentioned above, this does not seem
217    <i>professional</i> side robust.    desirable.</p>
   </p>  
218    <p>    <p>
219    If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing    If it were to be a full registry, it will harvest itself all the existing
220    resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational    resources, and not all of them will fit or be suitable for the educational
221    scope the registry has to be preservde for.    scope the registry has to be preservde for.
222    </p>    </p>
223    <p>    <p>
224    What is needed is a resource (the curated registry) capable of :    What is needed is a resource (the curated, in <cite>[<a href="#std:RI1">std:RI1</a>]</cite>
225    <ul><li><i>manually</i> harvesting the existing VO resources    parlance, local, registry) capable of :
226      <ul><li><i>selectively</i> harvesting the existing VO resources
227          (e.g. from a full registry);</li><li>register its own educational resources without being directly          (e.g. from a full registry);</li><li>register its own educational resources without being directly
228          harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a          harvested by full registries (e.g. this could be done using a
229          sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational          sibling publishing registry dedicated to host those educational
230          resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li></ul>          resources that are to be harvested by the standard full registries.</li></ul>
231    </p>    </p>
232    <p>    <p>
233    The drawing in Fig. 1 exemplifies the above descripted    In Fig. 1 wie illustrate this <span class="edit">(XXX NO FIGURE IN
234      SVN, PLUS MAKE THIS A CAPTION XXX)</span>
235    scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture    scenario. This solution will, again, not touch the existing architecture
236    while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to    while giving flexibility for the emerging educational resources to
237    be curated.    be curated.
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246  like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at  like tutorials, worked-out use cases, or textbook-like material is at
247  least as important.  Within the VO community, there is a large body of  least as important.  Within the VO community, there is a large body of
248  such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to  such material for a wide variety of audiences ranging from pre-school to
249  researchers (TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO works).</p>  researchers <span class="edit">(TODO: cite AIDA, EuroVO, VAO
250    works).</span></p>
251    
252  <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various  <p>To date, such material has been collected informally by the various
253  projects on plain web pages.  It was, in consequence, hard to find it.  projects on plain web pages.  It was, in consequence, hard to find, with
254  Also, locating editable forms of such texts -- which has been found to  knowledge of it often passed on antecdotically.  To remedy this, we
255  be necessary fairly regularly -- has been at least difficult; while  propose to keep record of such material in the registry.</p>
 representing source-product relationships is in principle in the domain  
 of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry, in the case of  
 texts the relation is so simple and its representation so useful that we  
 propose to include it in a simple registry extension covering text-like  
 material, dubbed DocRegExt in the following.</p>  
256    
257  <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of  <p>The VO already has a registry extension for standards, which of
258  course are also text-like (<cite>[<a href="#std:STDREGEXT">std:STDREGEXT</a>]</cite>).  This extension,  course are also text-like (<cite>[<a href="#std:STDREGEXT">std:STDREGEXT</a>]</cite>).  This extension,
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261  material.  Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which  material.  Conversely, it is not concerned with document language (which
262  can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards  can safely be assumed to be English for standards), and it disregards
263  the issue of document formats, which for educational material is  the issue of document formats, which for educational material is
264  important.</p>  important.  We therefore propose a simple registry extension covering
265    text-like material, dubbed DocRegExt.  In the following, we collect
266    use cases for that extension.</p>
267    
268    
269  <div class="section"><h3><a id="regext-usecases" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">3.1. </span>Use Cases</a></h3>  <div class="section"><h3><a id="regext-usecases" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">3.1. </span>Use Cases</a></h3>
270    
# Line 283  Line 289 
289  allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow  allowing the coverage element withing DocRegExt resources would allow
290  answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this  answering the question; in reality, few registries expose this
291  information in useable form)</li><li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror").  Is it  information in useable form)</li><li>I've found this VO tutorial somewhere on the net ("on a mirror").  Is it
292  the latest version?  If not, where can I find an update?</li></ul>  the latest version?  If not, where can I find an update? (Unless the
293    title of the text changed, standard VOResource should suffice)</li></ul>
294  </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->  </div> <!-- section regext-usecases -->
295    
296    <p>On the use cases of locating editable forms of such texts -- which
297    has been found to be necessary fairly regularly -- we note in passing
298    that representing source-product relationships is in principle in the
299    domain of provenance and thus not in scope for the registry. However, in
300    the case discussed here the relation is so simple and its representation
301    so useful that we propose to include it in a DocRegExt.</p>
302    
303    <p class="edit">Actually write the extension</p>
304    
305  </div> <!-- section regext -->  </div> <!-- section regext -->
306    
307  <div class="section"><h2><a id="lang" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">4. </span>Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>  <div class="section"><h2><a id="lang" shape="rect"><span class="secnum">4. </span>Internationalization of VO Resources</a></h2>
# Line 293  Line 309 
309  The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials  The EURO-VO AIDA project WP5 put some effort also in translating tutorials
310  in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level  in different languages, meeting the needs for high schools and lower level
311  educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an  educational degrees when starting dissemination in astrophysics to an
312  audience not skilled enough with the english language. It would be an added  audience not skilled enough with the English language. It would be an added
313  value in this case to be able to register an educational or  value in this case to be able to register an educational or
314  documental resource not only in english (as it is done currently with  document resource not only in english (as it is done currently with
315  standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.  standard VO resources) but also in other national languages.
316  </p>  </p>
317  <p>  <p>

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